ly sponsored R&D performed at the laboratories. For FY 1989, 297 research-oriented federal laboratories surveyed by the General Accounting Office produced only $6.3 million in royalties and 676 patents. Approximately 31 percent of these laboratories had not received guidance for implementing the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. “The major provisions [of the Act]," the agency concluded, “still have not been fully implemented."78

Table 2–2 provides an overview of one measure of federal output in technology transfer. The amount of technology transferred from the laboratories is strikingly meager, particularly when compared to the $23 billion per year in total federal laboratory R&D expenditures. There are other measures of output that indicate limited progress in linking federal laboratories to provide sector R&D—at least in the initial stages of the development process. Table 2–3 shows the total number of CRADAs that federal

TABLE 2–2 Summary of Patents, Licenses, and Royalties, Fiscal Year 1989

Department/Agency

Patents Pending

Patents Issued

Exclusive Licenses

Nonexclusive Licenses

Total Royalties ($)

Commerce

20

2

0

7

0

Defense

1,142

289

17

15

4,570,472

Energy

548

211

24

30

888,800

Interior

14

8

1

0

13,900

Transportation

0

0

0

0

0

Environmental Protection Agency

6

1

1

0

0

Health and Human Services

139

22

1

0

814,232

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

253

98

30

19

35,100

Agriculture

99

44

10

8

1,500

Veterans Administration

12

1

1

3

0

Total

2,233

679

85

82

6,324,004

Laboratories Responding

241

247

247

242

272

 

SOURCE: General Accounting Office, Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986, 1991.



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