PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • chlorination of water

  • proper cooking of foods (particularly poultry) and pasteurization of milk

  • handwashing after animal contact

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • improved recognition of the organism

  • an increase in poultry consumption in recent years

Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR Strain)

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

TWAR infection, TWAR pneumonia

  • fever, myalgias, cough, sore throat, sinusitis

  • illness is usually mild, but recovery is slow; cough tends to last for more than two weeks

DIAGNOSIS

  • isolation of organism from throat or sputum

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR), a chlamydia

  • strain name is derived from designation of first two isolates, TW-183 from Taiwan and AR-39 (acute respiratory)

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • person to person; thought to be acquired by inhalation of infective organisms

  • possibly by direct contact with secretions of an infected person

DISTRIBUTION

  • probably worldwide

  • the majority of cases have occurred in North America, Asia, and Europe

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • 1 to 4 weeks

  • period of communicability is unknown but presumed to be long, based on duration of documented outbreaks



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