DISTRIBUTION

  • worldwide

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • 1 to 3 days

  • with antibiotic therapy, period of communicability is as short as 1 to 2 days

  • untreated cases, especially those involving purulent discharges, can be communicable for weeks to months

TREATMENT

  • antibiotics: penicillin

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • in some cases, prophylactic treatment of close contacts with penicillin

  • people with respiratory infections or skin infections should not directly handle food

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • probably a change in the virulence of some streptococci in this group has been responsible for deadly infections

Vibrio cholerae

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Cholera

  • sudden onset of profuse, watery diarrhea followed by profound dehydration

  • can progress to shock within 4 to 12 hours

  • in severe untreated cases, death can occur within hours

DIAGNOSIS

  • isolation of organism from stool or rectal swab

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, biotypes cholerae and El Tor (bacteria)

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • ingestion of water contaminated with the feces of infected persons (organism is easily killed with chlorination but can survive in ice cubes, salt water, and mineral water)

  • ingestion of food washed with contaminated water



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