INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • California serogroup viruses: LaCrosse, Jamestown Canyon, California encephalitis, and snowshoe hare virus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • bite of an infective mosquito

  • not directly transmitted from person to person

DISTRIBUTION

  • United States, Canada, and Commonwealth of Independent States

  • cases typically occur in temperate latitudes in summer and early fall

INCUBATION PERIOD

  • usually 5 to 15 days

TREATMENT

  • supportive only

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • avoidance of exposure to mosquitoes during hours of biting (dusk to dawn)

  • mosquito control (elimination of breeding sites)

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • reforestation

  • poor vector control

  • increasing interface between human activity and endemic areas

  • discarded tires as a source of mosquito breeding sites

Chikungunya Virus

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Chikungunya fever

  • abrupt onset of fever, headache, myalgias

  • joint pain, arthritis, hemorrhagic fever

  • disease is usually acute and self-limited

DIAGNOSIS
  • isolation of the virus from patient's blood



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