MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • bite of an infective tick

  • contact with blood or secretions/excretions of an infected person or animal

  • virus has also spread by aerosolization

DISTRIBUTION

  • Eastern Europe, central and western Asia, Middle East, Sub-Saharan and southern Africa

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • 3 to 6 days

  • blood of an infected person has high concentration of virus for 8 to 10 days

TREATMENT

  • supportive

  • ribavirin may be helpful

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • strict isolation of infected patients

  • avoidance of contact with ticks and infected persons and animals

  • in the Commonwealth of Independent States, a killed vaccine is used in high-risk populations, with uncertain efficacy

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • lack of effective tick control

  • lack of effective animal quarantine

Dengue Virus
DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS)

  • sudden onset of fever, headache, joint and muscle pain

  • nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and rash may be present

  • fever typically lasts 3 to 7 days; convalescence may be prolonged

  • initial phase of DHF/DSS may be similar to the above, but is followed by hemorrhagic phenomena, bleeding from multiple sites, and vascular collapse



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