• after 3 to 5 days of fever, hemorrhagic manifestations begin

  • case fatality rate for Marburg virus infection is 25 percent

  • case fatality rates for Ebola infection have ranged from 50 to 90 percent

DIAGNOSIS

  • isolation of virus from blood, other tissues, or body fluids

  • serological detection of antibodies

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Ebola virus

  • Marburg virus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • close contact with infected persons or infected blood, tissues, secretions, or excretions

  • transplacental and venereal transmission have occurred

  • possibly contact with infected animal vectors (primates)

DISTRIBUTION

  • Ebola: epidemics have taken place in Sudan and Zaire; virus may be endemic in other parts of Africa; monkeys infected with an Ebola-like virus were imported to the United States from the Philippines in 1989 (no human illness resulted)

  • Marburg: scattered human cases have occurred in central, eastern, and southern Africa; cases reported in Germany were a result of handling material from infected African green monkeys imported from Uganda

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • for both virus infections, 5 to 10 days

  • both viruses can persist in humans for at least 2 months

TREATMENT

  • supportive only

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • avoidance of contact with infected persons and their blood, other tissues, and body fluids

  • strict isolation of infected persons

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • virus-infected monkeys shipped from developing countries via air



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