MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • usually by direct contact

  • also by autoinoculation (e.g. by a shaving razor) and by contact with contaminated floors

  • genital warts are sexually transmitted

  • virus can be transmitted from mother to infant during birth

DISTRIBUTION

  • worldwide

INCUBATION PERIOD AND COMMUNICABILITY

  • 1 to 20 months; average is 2 to 3 months

  • period of communicability is unknown but is probably at least as long as visible lesions persist

TREATMENT

  • freezing of warts with liquid nitrogen

  • application of salicylic acid or podophyllin to remove warts

  • interferon has been shown to be effective in the treatment of genital warts

  • surgical removal or laser therapy is required for laryngeal and cervical warts

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • avoidance of direct contact with lesions

  • use of a condom during sexual intercourse

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • possibly increases in sexual activity

Human Parvovirus B19

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Erythema infectiosum

  • classic infection in childhood is characterized by erythema of cheeks (slapped cheek appearance) and rash on extremities

  • adults have more severe illness, with fever and arthritis that can last for months or years

  • may cause aplastic crisis in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias

DIAGNOSIS

  • made on clinical grounds, can be confirmed by testing for antibodies



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