• a killed, attenuated vaccine exists for cases in which the live vaccine is ineffective

  • control of infection in horses by vaccination

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • introduction into new regions via infected mosquitoes and horses

Yellow Fever Virus

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Yellow fever

  • clinical features range from inapparent to fatal

  • typical attacks are characterized by abrupt onset, fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting

  • as disease progresses, jaundice, hemorrhagic complications, and renal failure may occur

  • pulse may be slow despite high fever

  • the case fatality rate among indigenous populations of endemic regions is less than 5 percent; this rate may exceed 50 percent among nonindigenous groups and in epidemics

  • recovery is slow but complete in survivors

DIAGNOSIS

  • isolation of virus from the blood

  • demonstration of viral antigen in the blood or liver tissue by ELISA

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Yellow fever virus

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • bite of an infective mosquito

  • not directly transmitted from person to person

DISTRIBUTION

  • disease is endemic in tropical South and Central America and in Africa

  • potential for outbreaks exists in other areas where vector mosquito is found (including the United States)

INCUBATION PERIOD

  • range is 3 to 14 days; usually 1 to 6 days



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