DISTRIBUTION

  • most cases are reported from Japan

  • cases are also sporadically reported from North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the South Pacific

  • infected fish can potentially be shipped to any region of the world

INCUBATION PERIOD

  • 1 to 12 hours for gastric attachment; 7 to 14 days for intestinal attachment

TREATMENT

  • endoscopic removal of larva

  • surgery may be necessary to remove obstruction

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • heating marine fish to 140°F for 10 minutes or freezing at -4°F for at least five days kills the larvae

FACTORS FACILITATING EMERGENCE

  • increasing popularity of raw fish dishes in the United States and elsewhere

Babesia

DISEASE(S) AND SYMPTOMS

Babesiosis

  • fever, fatigue, chills, and hemolytic anemia lasting from several days to a few months

DIAGNOSIS

  • blood smear contains red blood cells with visible parasites

INFECTIOUS AGENT

  • Babesia microti and other Babesia species (protozoan parasites)

  • nymphal Ixodes ticks (carried by deer mice) are vectors; adult ticks live on deer

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

  • bite of a nymphal Ixodes tick

  • not directly transmitted from person to person

  • occasional transmission by blood transfusion has been reported



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