Centers for Disease Control, and chairman of the Management Committee of the Children's Vaccine Initiative Consultative Group. He is also scientific advisor to the National Vaccine Program and a consultant in infectious diseases to the surgeon general of the Army.

ALEXIS SHELOKOV, M.D., is director of medical affairs—and, until recently, director of vaccine research—at the Salk Institute, Government Services Division. Born and raised in China, he developed an early interest in epidemic infectious diseases; following graduation from Stanford University Medical School and a period of clinical training, he made a career commitment to study the etiology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of epidemic infectious diseases, as a basis for their control and prevention. Dr. Shelokov served as virology laboratory chief at the National Institutes of Health and has held professorships in microbiology at the University of Texas and in epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University. He has been a member of a number of advisory committees for the federal government, universities, and private foundations, as well as for the Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization. Dr. Shelokov is board certified in preventive medicine.

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate Professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine and professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill. He was formerly Chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the same institution. Dr. Sparling is an infectious disease physician and has published extensively in the area of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bacterial pathogenesis, including particularly Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the cause of gonorrhea. In recent years his interests, have also included the epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of STIs, and behaviors as risk factors for the acquisition of these infections. He now directs an STI Cooperative Research Center, one of five recently established in the United States. The focus of the center is the molecular basis of pathogenesis by multiple microorganisms that cause STIs and the epidemiological and behavioral factors that contribute to STIs in rural core transmitter populations. Dr. Sparling has been a member of numerous national organizations and has chaired a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) study section. Among his honors he lists receipt of the Joseph Smadel Award from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

ANDREW SPIELMAN, Ph.D., is professor of tropical public health at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he explores the role of arthropods in human disease. His studies on Lyme disease have defined the manner in



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