B

B lymphocyte

one of two general categories of lymphocytes (white blood cells) involved in the humoral immune response. When help is provided by T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens.

bacillus

rod-shaped bacteria.

bacteremia

refers to the presence of bacteria in the blood.

beta-lactam

an active portion of an antibiotic (e.g., a penicillin or cephalosporin) that is part of the chemical structure of the antibiotic and that can be neutralized by a beta-lactamase produced by certain microorganisms (e.g., some staphylococci).

beta-lactamase

an enzyme that neutralizes the affect of an antibiotic containing beta-lactam.

BL-4

level of containment required for safe handling of the most contagious pathogenic microbes.

C

calicivirus

a family of small viruses; includes vesicular exanthem and seal plague viruses.

carbapenem

a class of antibiotic.

cellular immunity, cell-mediated immunity

a type of immune response in which subpopulations of T-cells (helper T-cells and killer T-cells) cooperate to destroy cells in the body that bear foreign antigens, such as bacteria.

cephalosporin

a class of antibiotic.

clonal

of or pertaining to a group of genetically identical organisms derived from a single parent or a DNA population derived from a single DNA molecule by replication in a bacterial or eucaryotic host cell.

coagulase-negative

refers to the inability of an organism, particularly staphylococci, to produce an enzyme that, in concert with a blood plasma cofactor, catalyzes the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen.

coding sequence

the order of nucleotide bases in a nucleic acid that specifies the production of a particular product, such as a protein. A change in the coding sequence (e.g., as a result of a mutation) can result in a change in the product.

D

DDT

1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane or chlorophenothane, a pesticide.

deletion mutation

a mutation that results from the deletion of one or more amino acids present in the genetic material of the organism undergoing the mutation.

disease

as used in this report, refers to a situation in which infection has elicited signs and symptoms in the infected individual; the infection has become clinically apparent.



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