Index

A

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, see HIV infection and disease

Acute care facilities, 61

Acyclovir, 99-100

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 103, 233-234

Aedes spp., 30, 38, 40, 42, 44, 49, 50, 51, 160, 220, 222

Aeromonas spp., 65, 199-200

Africa,

HIV in, 55

Rift Valley fever outbreak, 71-72

Agency for International Development (AID)

International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 130-131, 149

overseas laboratories, 126

Program in Worldwide Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV, 131

Agriculture, 43-44, 64-65, 86-87

antibiotics use, 64

migrant workers, 29, 80-81

pesticides use, 14, 20, 102, 165

AIDS, see HIV infection and disease

Aircraft, 23

Alexandrium spp., 68

Amblyomma americanum, 206

Anaerobic bacteria, 66

Animals, see Epizootics Zoonoses;

specific types of animals

Anisakiasis, 69-70, 247-248

Anopheles spp., 41

Antimicrobial drugs, see Drugs

Aquaculture, 65

Arboviruses, 44, 45, 76-77, 81

see also Mosquitoes;

specific virus types

Arenaviruses, 46

Arthropods, 13, 44, 45

see also Fleas;

Lice;

Mosquitoes;

Pesticides;

Ticks;

Vector control

Asian tiger mosquito, 30

Aswan Dam, 71

Atherosclerosis, 104-105

Attenuated organisms, 153-154

Avian influenza, 19, 87

AZT, 100

Aztec Indians, 24



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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Index A Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, see HIV infection and disease Acute care facilities, 61 Acyclovir, 99-100 Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 103, 233-234 Aedes spp., 30, 38, 40, 42, 44, 49, 50, 51, 160, 220, 222 Aeromonas spp., 65, 199-200 Africa, HIV in, 55 Rift Valley fever outbreak, 71-72 Agency for International Development (AID) International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 130-131, 149 overseas laboratories, 126 Program in Worldwide Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV, 131 Agriculture, 43-44, 64-65, 86-87 antibiotics use, 64 migrant workers, 29, 80-81 pesticides use, 14, 20, 102, 165 AIDS, see HIV infection and disease Aircraft, 23 Alexandrium spp., 68 Amblyomma americanum, 206 Anaerobic bacteria, 66 Animals, see Epizootics Zoonoses; specific types of animals Anisakiasis, 69-70, 247-248 Anopheles spp., 41 Antimicrobial drugs, see Drugs Aquaculture, 65 Arboviruses, 44, 45, 76-77, 81 see also Mosquitoes; specific virus types Arenaviruses, 46 Arthropods, 13, 44, 45 see also Fleas; Lice; Mosquitoes; Pesticides; Ticks; Vector control Asian tiger mosquito, 30 Aswan Dam, 71 Atherosclerosis, 104-105 Attenuated organisms, 153-154 Avian influenza, 19, 87 AZT, 100 Aztec Indians, 24

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States B Babesiosis, 76, 248-249 Bacillus microbial control agents, 102 Bacteria, 53, 63 genetic changes, 89-92 listing of, 36-37, 199-217 passim virulence factors, 89-90, 91 see also specific types Behavioral factors, 1, 14, 48, 67, 167-168 see also Diet; Drug abuse; Land use factors; Sexual behavior; Travel Beta-lactam antibiotics, 94 Bilge water, 81, 107 Biological control agents, 165 Biorational pesticides, 165 Biotechnology, 20 attenuated organisms, 153-154 Birds, 30 Black Death, 17 Blood contamination, 59, 60, 78n Body lice, 112 Borrelia burgdorferi, 28, 72, 76, 200-202 Botulism, 66 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 64-65, 217-218 Brazilian purpuric fever, 90-92, 208 Bubonic plague, 17, 22 C Caliciviruses, 46-47 California, vector control in, 162 California serogroup viruses, 218-219 Campylobacter jejuni, 202-203 Candida, 249-250 Catheterization, 59 Cell lines, and virus infection, 82, 84 Cellulitis, 199-200 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 9, 11, 130, 131, 147-148, 164 Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, 162 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), 9, 148 Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP), 9, 148 Foreign Quarantine Division, 23 Hospital Infections Program, 4, 58, 121 Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), 153 National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), 9, 147 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS), 4, 58 , 121-122 National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 3, 118-120 overseas labs, 126, 262-263 quarantine stations, 22-23 surveillance activities, 5, 118-123, 131, 138-139 vaccine purchase, 153-138 Cervical cancer, 105-106 Ceviche, 69, 107 Chickens, 19 Chikungunya virus, 44, 219-220 Children, vaccination of, 138, 155 China influenza monitoring, 130 schistosomiasis outbreak, 112 Chlamydia spp., 36, 105, 203-205 Chloroquine, 29, 100-101 Cholera, 68, 107-108, 139, 215-216

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Chronic care facilities, 61-62 Chronic progressive myelopathy, 233-234 Clostridium botulinum, 66 Clostridium difficile, 205 Codex Alimentarius, 68 Codworms, 69, 247-248 Cofactors in disease, microbes as, 102-106 Colonial settlements, 22, 24 Connecticut, Lyme disease outbreak, 73-74 Coordination, see Organizational factors Costs and cost effectiveness, 15, 138-139, 169 measles immunization, 138, 139 tuberculosis, 96, 97, 169 vector control, 166 Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 118-119 Cowpox, 24-25 Crack cocaine, 54-55, 56 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, 220-221 Cryptococcus spp., 251-252 Cryptosporidium, 252-253 Culiseta melanura, 30 Cytomegalovirus, 53, 104-105 D Dairy products, 21, 67 Dams, 71-72 Data bases, 4-5, 123, 125 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS), 4, 58 , 121-122 National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 3, 118- 120 DDT, 20, 165 Deer, 28, 73, 75, 76 Dengue, 30, 44, 49-51, 78, 221-222 Department of Defense (DoD), 151-152 overseas labs, 5, 9-10, 126, 127, 148-149, 261 Diama Dam, 71-72 Diarrheal diseases, 130-131, 239-240 Diet, 69 Disasters, 71 DNA, 84, 88-89 Drought, 64 Drug abuse, 53, 54-56, 104 Drugs, 1, 10, 12, 20, 159-160 agricultural use, 64 antimalarial, 29, 93, 100-101 antiviral, 98-100 and Helicobacter pyroli, 29 and HIV, 100 resistance to, 29, 31-32, 58-59, 64, 92-101, 159-160 see also Acyclovir; Beta-lactam antibiotics; Foscarnet; Methicillin; Penicillin; Vancomycin Duodenal ulcers, 28-29 E Eastern equine encephalitis, 30 Ebola virus, 83, 222-223 Economic factors, 33 pesticide development, 14, 164-165 vaccine development, 11-12, 152, 153, 154-155 see also Costs and cost effectiveness Education and training international coordination, 8-9 professional, 8-10, 140, 144-150 passim public, 14, 167-168

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Egypt, Rift Valley fever, 71-72 Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 206 Elderly population, 52, 67 Electronic data bases, see Data bases Endangered species, 13-14, 164 Enteric viruses, 63, 67, 94 Enterococci, 94 Environmental factors, 2, 43 see also Land use factors; Seasonal factors Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 163-164, 166 Endangered Species Protection Plan, 13-14, 164 Epidemic hemorrhagic fever, 112 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), 9, 148 Epidemics, 21, 32 see also specific diseases Epizootics, 22, 46, 65 plague, 17-18 Erythema infectiosum, 232-233 Erythema migrans, 27, 73, 74 Escherichia coli, 63, 207 Ethiopia, smallpox cases, 25, 117 Europe Black Death in, 17 harbor seal epizootic, 46 Lyme disease outbreaks, 76 smallpox in, 24 Spanish flu in, 18-19 Extramural grant programs, 9, 147-148 F Family Health International, Inc., 131 Fecal contamination, 70 and cholera, 107-108 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET), Committee on Life Sciences, 3, 5, 120 Federal government, 3, 5 HIV response, 56-57, 168 research and development, 8-10, 144-149 surveillance activities, 3-5, 120-121 and vaccine development, 11-12, 151, 155, 159 see also Centers for Disease Control; Department of Defense; Food and Drug Administration; Intergovernmental coordination; National Institutes of Health; Public Health Service; Treasury Department Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 13, 163 Feedlots, 64 Field Epidemiology Training Program, 9, 148 Filoviruses, 83-84, 222-223 Fish, 65, 69-70, 107-108 Fleas, 16-17 Fluoroquinolones, 93 Fogarty International Center, 5 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 68 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 9, 139, 147-148, 153 Food and food processing, 21, 63-70 Forests and reforestation, 28, 72-73 Foscarnet, 99 Fungi, 64 listing of, 40-41, 249-252 Future of Public Health, 7, 137-138

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States G Gastric carcinoma, 28, 209 Gastritis, 28-29 Gastroenteritis, 239 Genetic changes in microbes, 1, 42-43, 84-92 Genetic engineering, 20 Genital chlamydia, 204-205 Germany, Lyme disease in, 27 Giardia lamblia, 253-254 Global warming, 76-77 Gorgas, Gen. William C., 20 Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, 125, 127, 129 Government, see Federal government; Intergovernmental coordination; Regulation; State government Grains, 64 Ground squirrels, 16, 17 Guanarito virus, 44, 46 Gymnodinium catenatum, 68 H Haemophilus influenzae, 92, 208 Hantaviruses, 81-82, 224-225 Helicobacter pylori, 28-29, 209 Helminths, 69-70 listing of, 40-41, 247-259 passim Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 207 Hemorrhagic colitis, 207 Henson, Jim, 34 Hepatitis, 46-47, 62-63, 88-89, 225-228 Herd immunity, 151 Herpes, 99-100, 104-105, 228-229 see also Cytomegalovirus Herringworms, 69, 247-248 HIV infection and disease, 27, 55-57, 60, 87-88, 99, 100, 103-104 , 132, 168, 229-231 opportunistic diseases, 52, 53-54 and TB, 31, 53-54, 97 Homosexuality, 55, 56, 168 Hospital Infections Program, 4, 58, 121 Hospitals, 6, 61-62, 122 see also Nosocomial diseases Human herpesvirus-6, 228-229 Human immunodeficiency virus, see HIV infection and disease Human papillomavirus, 105-106, 231-232 Human parvovirus, 232-233 Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), 47, 103-104, 233-234 Humidity, 77 Hygiene, see Sanitation and hygiene I Immigration, see Migration and immigration Immunity, 1, 151 see also Immunosuppression; Vaccination and vaccines; Variolation Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), 153 Immunosuppression, 48, 51-54, 64, 99 Imports, see Trade and trade restrictions Indians, 24 Industry, see Organizational factors; Private sector Infection, definition of, 42 Influenza, 15, 18-19, 46, 86-87, 235-236 surveillance, 123, 124, 130, 132, 158

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Information systems data bases, 4-5, 123, 125 international networks, 6, 26, 134-136 see also National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance Infrastructure, see Organizational factors Insect growth regulators, 165 Insects, see Arthropods; Fleas; Lice; Mosquitoes; Pesticides; Ticks; Vector control Inspection of food, 68 Insurance companies, patient records, 3, 121 Intergovernmental coordination, 3, 7, 139-140 surveillance activities, 118-121 International Catalogue of Arboviruses, 81 International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 130-131, 149 International Centers for Tropical Disease Research, 8-9, 129-130 , 146 International Children's Vaccine Initiative, 155 International Clinical Epidemiology Network, 8, 130, 145 International Collaboration in Infectious Disease Research Program, 8-9, 145-146 International commerce, see Aircraft; Ships; Trade and trade restrictions; Travel International coordination research and training, 8-10, 33, 143-150 passim surveillance, 5-7, 32-33, 125-137, 159 International Health Regulations, 132 Intervention systems, 7, 113, 114, 137 see also Behavioral factors; Drugs; Education and training; Media campaigns; Organizational factors; Research and development; Vaccination and vaccines; Vector control Irradiation of food, 66-67 Ixodes ticks, 33, 41, 74, 75, 160, 201, 248 J Jamestown Canyon virus, 218-219 Japanese encephalitis virus, 236-237 Jenner, Edward, 24-25 K Koop, Surgeon General C. Everett, 56 Korean War, 111, 112 L Laboratories, 140 infected animal colonies, 82-84 international, 6, 26, 133-134, 263-264 overseas U.S. facilities, 5, 9-10, 125-131, 134, 261-263 LaCrosse virus, 160, 218-219 Land use factors, 28, 43-44, 67, 71-73, 76 Lassa fever, 78, 79, 128, 237-238 Legal issues, see Liability claims; Regulation Legionnaires' disease, 209-210

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Leishmaniasis, 60, 112 Lentiviruses, 55 Leptospirosis, 112 Leptotrombidium, 112 Liability claims, vaccines, 11, 155 Lice, 112 Licensing, see Regulation Listeriosis, 64, 211-212 Local programs and factors, 6, 7, 162-163 see also Intergovernmental coordination Lyme disease, 27-28, 72-76, 200-202 M Malaria, 20, 29-30, 78, 80-81, 154, 255-257 drug resistant, 29, 100-101 Malariotherapy, 78n Malathion, 163 Marburg virus, 83, 222-223 Mariculture, 65 Marine animals, 46, 65 Marine Hospital Service, 22 Marmots, 17 Massachusetts, Lyme disease outbreak, 75 Massachusetts Bay Colony, 22 Mather, Cotton, 24 Measles, 138, 238-239 vaccination, 109-110, 138 Media campaigns, 14, 168 Medical devices, and infection, 59, 94 Mefloquine, 101 Meningococcaemia, 92 Methicillin, 94 Mexico smallpox among Aztecs, 24 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in, 161 Mice, 28, 75, 81-82 Microbial pesticides, 165 Microbial traffic, 42-43 Microsporidia, 254-255 Middle America Research Unit (MARU), Canal Zone, 128-129 Middle East, 29-30 Migrant workers, 29, 80-81 Migration and immigration, 69 Military personnel, 17, 29-30, 60, 110-112 Milk, 21 Minority groups, 53, 110 Missionaries, 128 Modified atmosphere packaging, 66 Molecular biology, 144 Mongols, 17 Monkeys, 27, 55, 83 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 119 Mosquitoes, 20-21, 43-44, 51, 102, 166 and dengue, 30, 49, 50 and malaria, 29 and Rift Valley fever, 71-72 Multilateral organizations, see International coordination Mushrooms, 66 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 53, 95-97, 212-213 N National Action Plan to Combat Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, 121, 139 National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), 9, 147 National Cooperative Drug Development Groups (NCDDG), 159

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States National Cooperative Vaccine Development Groups (NCVDG), 11, 12, 155 National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), 4, 119 National Health Service Corps (NHSC), 10, 149-150 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 8- 9, 11, 143-144, 145-146, 151-152 International Centers for Tropical Disease Research, 8-9, 129-130 , 146 International Collaboration in Infectious Disease Research Program, 8-9, 145-146 overseas labs, 126, 129-130, 262 Tropical Disease Research Units, 8-9, 146 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 3, 5, 8, 14, 118-122, 128-129 , 145-147 Middle America Research Unit (MARU), Canal Zone, 128-129 overseas labs, 262 see also National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS), 4, 58 , 121-122 National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 3, 118- 120 National Vaccine Program Office, 151, 153 Native Americans, 24 Natural disasters, 71 Naval Medical Research Units, 149, 261 Nematodes, 69 listing of, 247-259 passim Nephropathia epidemica, 82 New Orleans, La., yellow fever outbreak, 156 New York Lyme disease outbreak, 75 measles outbreak, 110 New York Medical Society, 21 Nigeria, 42 Nile River Valley, Rift Valley fever in, 71 Norwalk and related agents, 239-240 Nosocomial infections, 57-59, 61-63, 93, 94 surveillance, 4, 62-63, 121-122 Notifiable diseases, 3, 118-121 Nurse-to-patient ratios, 61 Nursing homes, 61-62 O Opportunistic infections, 52-53 Oral rehydration therapy, 108 Oral vaccines, 153 Organizational factors, 7, 15, 108, 137-142, 151-153, 159-160 interagency coordination, 3, 5 intergovernmental coordination, 3, 7, 139-140 international coordination, 5-7, 8-10, 131, 134-137 private/public coordination, 3, 11-12, 140, 152-160 Organ transplants, 61 P Packaging of foods, 66 Panama Canal, 20

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 6, 25-26, 264 Papillomaviruses, 105-106, 231-232 Pasteur Institutes, 264 Pasteurization, 21 Paul, John, 132-133 Penicillin, 20, 31-32, 93 Peptic ulcers, 28-29, 209 Persian Gulf War, 29-30, 60, 111, 112 Peru, cholera outbreak, 107, 139 Pesticides, 13-14, 20-21, 163-167 resistance to, 2, 20, 29, 102, 165, 167 Pigs, see Swine Plague, 16-18, 22 Plasmodium spp., 78n, 100-101, 255-257 Plastic packaging, 66 Pneumocystis carinii, 257-258 Pneumonia, 93-94 Pneumonic plague, 17 Poliomyelitis, 25-26, 133-134 Pontiac fever, 209-210 Population growth and density, 48, 49-50, 67, 77 Ports, 23 Poverty, 31, 33 Prenatal care, 52 Prevention strategies, see Intervention systems Primates, see Monkeys Private sector, 144-145, 151-159 see also Organizational factors Programmed-release biodegradable microspheres, 153 Protozoa, 70, 154 listing of, 40-41, 248-260 passim Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 94-95 Pseudoterranova decipiens, 69 Public Health Service (PHS), 4-5, 22-23, 140-142 National Vaccine Program Office, 151, 153 Purchase guarantees, 11, 12, 155 Puumala virus, 82, 224-225 Pyrethrum, 163 Q Quarantine, 21-23, 24 Quinine, 100 Quinolones, 93 R Rabies, 153, 240-241 Ragusa Republic, quarantine, 21-22 Rats, 16, 82 Reagents, and virus infection, 82, 84 Reforestation, see Forests and reforestation Refugees, 111 Regional programs and factors, 13, 28, 70, 72-73, 162-163 Regulation of food imports, 68 of pesticides, 13-14, 20-21, 163-166 of vaccines, 11, 152-153, 154 Reporting of diseases, 3, 73, 119-120, 121 Request for proposals (RFP), 8, 146-147 Research and development, 142-144 Federal support, 8-10, 11-12, 144-149, 159 international coordination, 8-9, 33, 143-150 passim vaccines, 143, 151-159

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Resistance to drugs, 29, 31-32, 58-59, 64, 92-101, 159-160 to pesticides, 2, 20, 29, 102, 165, 167 Reston virus, 27, 83 Retroviruses, see HIV infection and disease; Human T-lymphotropic viruses Revolutionary War, 24 Rickettsiae, 36, 112, 206 Rift Valley fever, 71-72, 242 RNA, 84, 85-88 Rochalimaea quintana, 112 Rockefeller Foundation, 5, 128 International Clinical Epidemiology Network, 8, 130, 145 Rodents, 16, 43, 46, 78 Ross River virus, 243 Rotavirus, 244 S St. Louis virus, 166 Sand flies, 112 Sanitation and hygiene, 21, 49 and cholera, 107-108 in hospitals, 58 Satellites, communication, 134-135 Schistosomiasis, 112 Scrub typhus, 112, 127 Seals and sea lions, 46 Seasonal factors, 13, 77, 162, 166 Senegal River Basin Rift Valley fever in, 71-72 Seoul virus, 82, 224-225 Serum banks, 132-133 Sexual behavior, 54-57, 106, 168 Shellfish, 67, 68, 107-108 Ships, 17, 22, 44, 68, 81, 107 Simian hemorrhagic fever, 83 Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 55 Slaughterhouses, 21 Slave trade, 44 Smallpox, 23-25, 77-78, 116 eradication program, 25, 115-118 South America cholera outbreak, 107 smallpox introduced in, 24 Spanish flu, 18-19 Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), 100, 143 Staffing shortages, 144 Staphylococci, 59, 66, 93, 94, 213-214 State government, 7, 32, 120 see also Intergovernmental coordination Stockpiling of pesticides, 13, 164 of vaccines, 11-12, 156, 158-159 Streptococcal infections, 34-35, 93-94, 214-215 Strongyloides stercoralis, 258-259 Surge capacity, for vaccine production, 11-12, 158-159 Surgery, 59 Surveillance, 2-3, 32-33, 113-123 food-borne diseases, 63-64 influenza, 123, 124, 130, 132, 158 international coordination, 5-7, 32-33, 125-137, 159 nosocomial diseases, 4, 62-63, 121-122 notifiable diseases, 3, 118-121 smallpox, 115-118 telephone hotlines, 3, 121 Sushi, 69

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Swamp drainage, 20 Swine, 19, 46, 87 Syphilis, 54-55, 77, 93 T Task forces, 121 Telephone hotlines, 3, 121 Texas St. Louis virus outbreak, 166 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis outbreak, 161 Ticks, 28, 73, 75-76, 160, 200-202 Tires, 50, 51 Toxic shock syndrome, 213-214 Toxoplasmosis, 259-260 Trade and trade restrictions, 44, 68, 81-84, 107 Training, see Education and training Transovarial transmission, 160 Transplants of organs, 61 Travel, 77-81 and dengue, 50 and Lyme disease, 74-75 and malaria, 101 and plague, 17 quarantines, 21-23 and smallpox, 24 Treasury Department, 22 Trench fever, 112 Treponema pallidum, 93 Trichinosis, 69 Tropical Disease Research Units, 8-9, 146 Tropical spastic paraparesis, 103, 233-234 Tuberculosis (TB), 15, 21, 30-31, 53-54, 95-97, 138-139, 212-213 drug resistant, 31, 121 TWAR infection, 203-204 Typhus, 112 U Ulcers, 28-29 United Kingdom BSE epizootic, 65 harbor seal epizootic, 46 Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions, 62 Urban areas, 43-44, 49, 50, 55 Urinary tract infections, 59 U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 27, 46, 83 U.S. Army Medical Research Units, 127, 261 U.S. government, see Federal government V Vaccination and vaccines, 10-12, 20, 150-151 dengue, 50-51 hepatitis, 62-63, 89, 151 HIV, 87, 155 influenza, 87, 150, 151, 157-158 measles, 109-110, 138 regulation of, 11, 152-153, 154 smallpox, 115-118 passim tuberculosis, 96 Vaccine Development Programme (VDP), 143 Vancomycin, 93, 94 Variolation, 24 Vector control, 12-14, 20-21, 160-163 see also Pesticides Vectored vaccine, 153-154

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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Vectors, see Arthropods; Pesticides; Vector control; specific animals and arthropods Venereal diseases, see Sexual behavior Venezuela, 50 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, 161, 245-246 Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, 44, 46 Vertebrate reservoirs, see Epizootics; Zoonoses; specific types of animals Vesicular exanthema, 46 Vibrio cholerae, 107-108, 215-216 Vibrio vulnificus, 216-217 Vietnam War, 29, 111, 112 Viral hemorrhagic fever, see Hantaviruses Virucidal drugs, 98 Viruses, 43-44, 70, 76-77, 81 and atherosclerosis, 104-105 DNA, 88-89 genetic changes, 85-89 listing of, 38-40, 217-247 RNA, 85-88 see also specific types W War, 2, 110-112 Water contamination and treatment, 20, 49, 67, 70-71 and cholera, 107-108 Weather, 64 see also Global warming; Seasonal factors Weekly Epidemiological Record, 132 Winter, see Seasonal factors Woodworth, Surgeon General John M., 22 World Health Assembly, 6, 137 World Health Organization (WHO), 5-6, 9, 25, 68 Field Epidemiology Training Program, 9, 148 smallpox eradication program, 115-117 Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), 100, 143 surveillance activities, 132-133, 263-264 Vaccine Development Programme (VDP), 143 see also Pan American Health Organization World War I, 18-19, 112 World War II, 29, 111, 112 Wound infection, 199-200 Y Yale Arbovirus Research Unit (YARU), 44, 46, 128 Yeast infection (Candida), 249-250 Yellow fever, 21, 22, 43-44, 156, 246-247 Yersinia pestis, 16-17 Z Zidovudine, 100 Zoonoses, 43-47, 111 see also Epizootics