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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States
TABLE 2-4 Representative Examples of Virulence Factors Encoded by Bacteriophages, Plasmids, and Transposons
Mobile Genetic Element
Enterotoxins A D E
Neurotoxins C D E
Enterotoxins LT, ST
Pili colonization factor
Serum resistance factor
Cell invasion factors
Poly-D-glutamic acid capsule
Intracellular growth factor
Capsule production factor
Hemolysin and x-pili operons?
NOTE: TSST-1=toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; LT=heat-labile enterotoxin; ST=heat-stable enterotoxin; ZOT=zona occuldens toxin; ACE=accessory cholera enterotoxin; ?=the DNA structure strongly suggests a transposon, but actual transposition has not been demonstrated.
SOURCE: J. Mekalanos, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School.
meningitis. Microscopic examination and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), however, were negative for Neisseria meningitidis (Centers for Disease Control, 1985). Within the next two years, additional outbreaks and isolated cases were reported in nine other towns in São Paulo State. It was also determined that a similar outbreak had occurred in May 1984, in the neighboring state of Paraná (Centers for Disease Control, 1985, 1986; Brazilian