TABLE 2-4 Representative Examples of Virulence Factors Encoded by Bacteriophages, Plasmids, and Transposons

Mobile Genetic Element

Organism

Virulence Factor

Bacteriophage

Streptococcus pyogenes

Escherichia coli

Staphylococcus aureus

Erythrogenic toxin

Shiga-like toxin

Enterotoxins A D E

Staphylokinase

TSST-1 toxin

 

Clostridium botulinum

Neurotoxins C D E

 

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Diphtheria toxin

Plasmid

Escherichia coli

Enterotoxins LT, ST

Pili colonization factor

Hemolysin

Urease

Serum resistance factor

Adherence factors

Cell invasion factors

 

Bacillus anthracis

Edema factor

Lethal factor

Protective antigen

Poly-D-glutamic acid capsule

 

Yersinia species

Intracellular growth factor

Capsule production factor

 

Yersinia pestis

Coagulase

Fibrinolysin

Murine toxin

Transposon

Escherichia coli

Heat-stable enterotoxins

Aerobactin siderophores?

Hemolysin and x-pili operons?

 

Shigella dysenteriae

Shiga toxin?

 

Vibrio cholerae

Cholera toxin

ZOT toxin

ACE toxin

NOTE: TSST-1=toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; LT=heat-labile enterotoxin; ST=heat-stable enterotoxin; ZOT=zona occuldens toxin; ACE=accessory cholera enterotoxin; ?=the DNA structure strongly suggests a transposon, but actual transposition has not been demonstrated.

SOURCE: J. Mekalanos, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School.

meningitis. Microscopic examination and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), however, were negative for Neisseria meningitidis (Centers for Disease Control, 1985). Within the next two years, additional outbreaks and isolated cases were reported in nine other towns in São Paulo State. It was also determined that a similar outbreak had occurred in May 1984, in the neighboring state of Paraná (Centers for Disease Control, 1985, 1986; Brazilian



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement