factored into cost-based reimbursement calculations for primary care. Special nutritional care should be a reimbursable item.

  • Cost-effective strategies for implementing the nutritional care recommended in this report should be developed and tested. For example, studies are needed to identify effective methods of incorporating nutrition services in home visits and to clarify the costs and benefits of such visits at various points during and after pregnancy.


1. Institute of Medicine. 1992. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation Guide. Report of the Subcommittee for a Clinical Applications Guide, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

2. Boker, J.R., R.L. Weinsier, C.M. Brooks, and A.K. Olson. 1990. Components of effective clinical-nutrition training: a national survey of graduate medical education (residency) programs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52.568–571.

3. Feldman, E.B. 1991. Educating physicians in nutrition—a view of the past, the present, and the future. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:618–622.

4. National Research Council. 1985. Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools. Committee on Nutrition in Medical Education, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

5. Weinsier, R.L., J.R. Boker, E.B. Feldman, M.S. Read, and C.M. Brooks. 1986. Nutrition knowledge of senior medical students: a collaborative study of southeastern medical schools. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43:959–965.

6. Weinsier, R.L., J.R. Boker, C.M. Brooks, R.F. Kushner, A.K. Olson, D.A. Mark, S.T. St. Jeor, V.A. Stallings, M. Winick, D. Heber, and W.J. Visek. 1991. Nutrition training in graduate medical (residency) education: a survey of selected training programs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:957–962.

7. Institute of Medicine; Dick, R.S., and E.B. Steen, eds. 1991. The Computer-Based Patient Record: An Essential Technology for Health Care. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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