lactation. This edition also focuses increased attention on the rationale for the recommended nutrition services.
Relevant content and recommendations from Nutrition During Pregnancy, Nutrition During Lactation, and Recommended Dietary Allowances (another recent Food and Nutrition Board publication) are incorporated in this book. In addition, the committee agreed that the following assumptions would guide its work:
A patient-centered, individualized approach promotes high-quality nutritional care.
The development of nutritional care plans is a key element of nutrition services.
Supportive family members or friends should be involved in the development and implementation of the nutritional care plan.
A team effort enhances nutritional care, especially if health, economic, or social problems are involved.
Efforts should be made to promote continuity of nutritional care.
The second edition of Nutrition Services in Perinatal Care describes two basic types of nutrition services: (1) basic nutrition services , which should be available to all women and infants in the course of usual health care, and (2) special nutrition services, which should be provided to women with health problems that complicate their nutritional care, to preterm infants, and to full-term infants with serious health problems. Basic nutrition services that address the mother's nutritional needs include early identification of women at risk for nutrition-related health problems, health maintenance activities for promoting adequate nutrition, and, as needed, basic nutrition interventions including counseling, food or vitamin-mineral supplementation, support, and referrals. Special nutrition services, which address complex nutritional problems related to medical or surgical conditions, usually require that a nutrition specialist, ordinarily an experienced registered dietitian, serve on the health care team. Examples of such health problems include insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, severe gastrointestinal disorders, and phenylketonuria; other examples are provided in the text.