• Organize in-service education programs for care providers to address complex nutritional problems during and after pregnancy.

  • Plan and implement activities to evaluate the quality of nutritional care and the safety and effectiveness of the nutrition program.


Basic nutrition services can and should be integrated into the routine health care of expectant and new mothers by physicians, midwives, nurses, and dietitians. Experts should be involved in providing prenatal and postnatal services to women with health problems that require complex diet modification or nutritional support. This ordinarily requires a coordinated effort by an experienced multidisciplinary team composed of a physician, a nurse, a dietitian, and perhaps several other specialists.


1. Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1985. Part 246.2—Special Supplemental Food Program For Women, Infants and Children: definitions. Federal Register 50(30):6121.

2. Chapman, J., E. Siegel, and A. Cross. 1990. Home visitors and child health: analysis of selected programs. Pediatrics 85:1059–1068.

3. National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality. 1989. Home Visiting: Opening Doors for America's Pregnant Women and Children. National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality, Washington, D.C.

4. Olds, D.L., and H. Kitzman. 1990. Can home visitation improve the health of women and children at environmental risk? Pediatrics 86:108–116.

5. General Accounting Office. 1990. Home Visiting: A Promising Early Intervention Strategy for At-Risk Families. GAO Publ. No. HRD-90-83. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C.

6. Institute of Medicine. 1992. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation Guide. Report of the Subcommittee for a Clinical Applications Guide, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation. Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

7. Peoples-Sheps, M.D., W.D. Kalsbeek, E. Siegel, C. Dewees, M. Rogers, and R. Schwartz. 1991. Prenatal records: a national survey of content. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164:514–521.

8. Macro Systems, Inc. 1990. One-Stop Shopping for Perinatal Services: Identification and Assessment of Implementation Methodologies. National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, D.C.

9. Hill, I.T., and J. Breyel. 1989. Coordinating Prenatal Care. National Governors' Association, Washington, D.C.

10. Tindall, J.A. 1989. Peer Counseling: In-Depth Look At Training Peer Helpers, 3rd ed. Accelerated Development Inc., Muncie, Ind.

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