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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow REFERENCES Allendorf, F. W., and R. F. Leary. 1986. Heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations of animals. Pp. 57–76 in M. E. Soulé, ed. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Assocs. Anderegg, R., H. Frey, and H. U. Miller. 1983. Reintroduction of the bearded vulture or Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus aureus to the Alps. Int. Zoo Yearb. 23:35–41. Andrewartha, H. G., and L. C. Birch. 1986. The Ecological Web: More on the Distribution and Abundance of Animals. Chicago: Chicago University Press. 506 pp. Anon. 1988. A new home for the Seychelles Brush Warbler. World Birdwatch 10 (3,4):4. Anon. 1991a. Overview, New Zealand. Am. Birds, Winter 1991:1040. Anon. 1991b. Success for takahe. Oryx 25:14. Anon. 1991c. Recent news from Bali. World Birdwatch 13(2):3. Antikanen, E. 1978. The breeding adaptations of the Jackdaw Corvus monedula L. in Finland. Savonia 2:1–45. Atkinson, I. A. E. 1970. Successional trends in the coastal and lowland forest of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Hawaii. Pacific Sci. 24:387–220. Atwood, J. L., M. J. Elpers, and C. T. Collins. 1990. Survival of breeders in Santa Cruz Island and mainland California Scrub Jay populations. Condor 92:783–788. Baldwin, P. H. 1969. The Alala (Corvus tropicus) of western Hawaii Island. 'Elepaio 30:41–45. Baldwin, P.H., and G.O. Fagerlund. 1943. The effect of cattle grazing on koa reproduction in Hawaii National Park. Ecology 24:118–122.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Ballou, J. D. 1991. Management of genetic variation in captive populations. Pp. 602–610 in E. C. Dudley, ed. The Unity of Evolutionary Biology: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology. Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press. [University of Maryland, College Park, USA] July 1990. Banko, P. C. 1974. Report on the 'Alala (Corvus tropicus). Unpubl. report submitted to World Wildlife Fund and Hawaii State Division of Fish and Game. 31 pp. Banko, P. C. 1976. Saving the 'Alala (Corvus tropicus) — some preliminary recommendations. Pp. 23–28 in C. W. Smith, ed. Proceedings of the First Conference in Natural Sciences in Hawaii, held at Hawaii Field Research Center, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, August 19–20, 1976. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. Banko, W. E., and P. C. Banko. 1980. History of endemic Hawaiian birds. Part 1. Population histories - species accounts: Forest birds: Alala or Hawaiian Raven/Crow. Avian Hist. Rep. 6B. Coop. Natl. Park Resour. Stud. Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, 121 pp. Bent, A. C. 1946. Life histories of North American jays, crows, and titmice. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 191:1–494. Berger, A. J. 1981. Hawaiian birdlife. 2nd Ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Blackwell, A. 1990. The White Stork: A capsule overview of its status in the wild and the role of captive reared and bred birds in reintroduction. Avic. Mag. 96:105–114. Bloesch, M. 1980. Drei Jahrzehnte Schweizerischer Storchansied-lungsversuch Ciconia ciconia in Altreu, 1948–1979. Ornithologische Beob. 77:167–194. Bluhm, C. K. 1985. Mate preferences and mating patterns of Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria). Ornithol. Monogr. 37:45–56. Brock, M. K. 1991. A Comparison of DNA Fingerprints from Hispaniolan and Puerto Rican Parrots. El Pittirre 4(3):3–4. Broo, B. 1978. Project Eagle Owl, Southwest. Pp. 104–120 in T. A. Greer, ed. Birds of Prey Management Techniques. Oxford: British Falconers Club. Brown, J. L., and E. R. Brown. 1990. Mexican Jays: uncooperative breeding. Pp. 269–288 in Stacey, P. B. and W. P. Koenig, eds. Cooperative Breeding in Birds: Long-Term Studies of Ecology and Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Bryant, I. J. 1985. Rare birds in National Wildlife Centre, Mt. Bruce, New Zealand. Avic. Mag. 91:48–59. Buitron, D. 1988. Female and male specialization in parental care and its consequences in Black-billed Magpies. Condor 90:29–39. Bulmer, M. G. 1973. Inbreeding in the Great Tit. Heredity 30:313–325. Burley, N., and N. Moran. 1979. The significance of age and reproductive experience in the mate preferences of feral Pigeons, Columba livia . Anim. Behav. 27:686–698. Burr, T. A. 1984. Alala Restoration Plan. Dept. of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu, Hawaii. Burr, T. A., P. Q. Tomich, E. Kosaka, W. Kramer, J. M. Scott, E. Kridler, J. Giffin, D. Woodside, and R. Bachman. 1982. Alala Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Butler, R. W., N. A. M. Verbeek, and H. Richardson. 1984. The breeding biology of the Northwestern Crow. Wilson Bull. 96:408–418. Butler, P. 1992. Parrots, pressures, people, and pride. Pp. 25–46 in S. R. Beissinger and N. F. R. Snyder, eds. New World Parrots in Crisis: Solutions from Conservation Biology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Cade, T. J. 1986a. Reintroduction as a method of conservation. Raptor Res. 5:72–84. Cade, T. J. 1986b. Propagating diurnal raptors in captivity: A review. Int. Zoo Yearb. 24/25:1–20. Cade, T. J. 1988. Using science and technology to re-establish species lost in nature. Pp. 279–288 in E. O. Wilson, ed. Biodiversity. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Cade, T. J. 1990. Peregrine falcon recovery. End. Species Update 8:40–43. Cade, T. J., and V. J. Hardaswick. 1985. Summary of Peregrine Falcon production and reintroduction by the Peregrine Fund in the United States, 1973–1984 . Avic. Mag. 91:79–92. Cade, T. J., and C. G. Jones. In Press. Progress in restoration of the Mauritius Kestrel.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Cade, T. J., J. H. Enderson, C. G. Thelander, and C. M. White, eds. 1988. Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Management and Recovery. Boise, Idaho: Peregrine Fund, Inc. Carpenter, J. W., and S. R. Derrickson. 1981. The role of captive propagation in preserving endangered species. Pp. 109–113 in R. R. Odom and J. W. Guthrie, eds. Proceedings of the Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Symposium, August 13–14, 1981. Athens, Georgia, Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division. Technical Bulletin WL 5. Carpenter, J. W., R. R. Gabel, and J. G. Goodwin, Jr. 1991. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the endangered Masked Bobwhite. Zoo Biol. 10:439–450. Carson, H. L. 1990. Increased genetic variance after a population bottleneck. Trends Ecol. Evol. 5:228–230. Carson, H. L., J. P. Lockwood, and E. M. Craddock. 1990. Extinction and recolonization of local populations on a growing shield volcano. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:7055–7057. Cavill, J. P. 1982. Viral diseases. Pp. 515–527 in Nil Petrak, ed. Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Chamberlain-Auger, J. A., P. J. Auger, and E. G. Strauss. 1990. Breeding biology of American Crows. Wilson Bull. 102:615–622. Clapp, R. B., M. K. Klimkiewicz, and A. G. Futcher. 1983. Longevity records of North American birds: Columbidae through Paridae. J. Field Ornithol. 54:123–137. Clark, T. W. 1990. Black-footed ferrets on the road to recovery. End. Species Update 8:86–88. Clubb, K. J. 1991. The reintroduction of Military Macaws in Guatemala: An example of private aviculture's role in avian conservation. PsittaScene 3:2–3. Coles, D. 1978. Breeding the Hunting Cissa at Padstow Bird Gardens. Avic. Mag. 84: 183–185. Coles, D. 1980. Breeding the Plush-Capped Jay at Padstow Bird Gardens. Avic. Mag. 86:125–128.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Collar, N. J., and P. Andrew. 1988. Birds to Watch: The ICBP World Checklist of Threatened Birds. ICBP Tech. Publ. No. 8. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Conant, S. 1988. Saving endangered species by translocation: Are we tinkering with evolution? Bio Science 38:254–257 Conway, W. 1988. Can technology aid species preservation? Pp. 263–268 in E. O. Wilson, ed. Biodiversity. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Coombs, F. 1978. The Crows. A Study of the Corvids of Europe. London: Batsford. Cox, P. A. 1983. Extinction of the Hawaiian avifauna resulted in a change of pollinators for the ie'ie, Freycinetia arborea. Oikos 41:195–199. Craig, J. L. 1991. Are small populations viable? ACTA XX Congressus Internationis Ornithologica 4:2546–2552. 2–9 December 1990, Christchurch, New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board . Daniell, A., and N. D. Murray. 1986. Effects of inbreeding in the Budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Aves: Psittacidae). Zoo Biol. 5:233–238. Davies, N. T. 1979. Anti-nutrient factors affecting mineral utilization. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 38:121–128. Delacour, D. J. 1936. Aviculture. Vol 1. Hertford: Stephen Austin. Denniston, C. 1977. Small population size and genetic diversity: Implications for endangered species. Pp. 281–289 in S. A. Temple, ed. Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Derrickson, S. R. 1985. Captive propagation of whooping cranes, 1982–1984. Pp. 377–386 in J. C. Lewis, ed. Proceedings 1985 Crane Workshop. Grand Island, Nebraska: Platte River Whooping Crane Habitat Maintenance Trust. Derrickson, S. R., and J. W. Carpenter. 1987. Behavioral management of captive cranes — factors influencing propagation and reintroduction. Pp. 493–514 in G.W. Archibald and R.F. Pasquier, eds. Proceedings 1983 International Crane Workshop. Baraboo, Wisconsin: International Crane Foundation .
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Derrickson, S. R., and N. F. R. Snyder. 1992. Potentials and limits of captive breeding in parrot conservation. Pp. 133–163 in S. R. Beissinger and N. F. R. Snyder, eds. New World Parrots in Crisis: Solutions from Conservation Biology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Dhindsa, M. S., and D. A. Boag. 1990. The effect of food supplementation on the reproductive success of Black-billed Magpies Pica pica. Ibis 132: 595–602. Diamond, J. M. 1985. Population processes in island birds: Immigration, extinction and fluctuations. Pp. 17–21 in International Council for Bird Preservation. ICBP Tech. Publ. No. 3. Drewien, R. C., and E. G. Bizeau. 1977. Cross-fostering whooping cranes to sandhill crane foster parents. Pp. 201–222 in S.A. Temple, ed. Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Durrell, L., and J. Mallinson. 1987. Reintroduction as a political and educational tool for conservation. Dodo 24: 6–19. Duvall, F., C. Tarr, and R. Fleischer. 1991. Genetic variation and inbreeding in the severely endangered Hawaiian Crow or ''Alala" - a bird at a bottleneck. Poster presented at the meeting: Hawaiian Evolution 1991, University of Hawaii at Hilo. Edworthy, T. 1972. Breeding Choughs at the Paignton Zoo. Int. Zoo Yearb. 12:140–141. Ellis, D. H., S. J. Dobrott, and J. B. Goodwin, Jr. 1977. Reintroduction techniques for Masked Bobwhites. Pp. 345–354 in S.A. Temple, ed. Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Emlen, J. T., Jr. 1942. Notes on a nesting colony of western crows. Bird-Banding 13:143–154. Engbring, J. 1990. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Memorandum, July 31. Evendon, F. G., Jr. 1947. Nesting studies of the Black-billed Magpie in southern Idaho. Auk. 64:260–266. Fairbanks, V. F., J. L. Fahey, and E. Beutler. 1971. Clinical Disorders of Iron Metabolism. New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Fentzloff, C. 1984. Breeding, artificial incubation and release of White-tailed Sea Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla. Int. Zoo Yearb. 23:18–35. Fitzpatrick, J. W., and G. E. Woolfenden. 1986. Demographic routes to cooperative breeding in some New World jays. Pp. 137–160 in Nitecki, M. and J. Kitchell, eds. Evolution of Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Flack, J. A. D. 1977. Interisland transfers of New Zealand Black Robins. Pp. 365–372 in S. A. Temple, ed. Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Frankel, O. H. and M. E. Soulé. 1981. Conservation and Evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press. Franklin, I. R. 1980. Evolutionary changes in small populations. Pp. 135–149 in M. E. Soulé and B. A. Wilcox, eds. Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Assocs. Fullagar, P. J. 1985. The woodhens of Lord Howe Island. Avic. Mag. 91:15–30. Garcelon, D. K., and G. W. Roemer, eds. 1988. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Raptor Reintroduction, 1985. Arcata, California: Institute for Wildlife Studies. Gretton, A., J. Komdeur, and M. Komdeur. 1991. Saving the Magpie Robin. World Birdwatch 13:10–11. Gibson, L. 1980. Steller's Jay, Cyanocitta stelleri. Avic. Mag. 86:141–147. Giffin, J. G. 1983. 'Alala investigation final report. Pittman-Robertson Proj. W-18-R, Study R-IIB, 1976–1981. Dept. of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Honolulu, Hawaii. Giffin, J. G., J. M. Scott, and S. Mountainspring. 1987. Habitat selection and management of the Hawaiian Crow. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:485–494. Giffin, J. G. 1990. Limited surveys of forest birds and their habitats in the state of Hawaii; Puu Waawaa Wildlife Sanctuary Bird Survey, July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1990. Unpubl. Prog. Rep., Proj. No W-18-R-15. Honolulu: Hawaii Dept. of Land and Nat. Resources. 8 pp.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Giffin, J. G. 1991. Limited surveys of forest birds and their habitats in the state of Hawaii; Puu Waawaa Wildlife Sanctuary Bird Survey, July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991. Unpubl. Prog. Rep., Proj. No W-18-R-16. Honolulu: Hawaii Dept. of Land and Nat. Resources. 2 pp. Goodburn, S. F. 1991. Territory quality or bird quality? Factors determining breeding success in the Magpie Pica pica. Ibis 133:85–90. Goodman, D. 1987. The demography of chance extinction. Pp. 11–34 in M. E. Soulé, ed. Viable Populations for Conservation. New York: Cambridge University Press. Goodwin, D. 1954. Lanceolated Jays breeding in captivity. Avic. Mag. 60:154–163. Goodwin, D. 1987. Update Crows of the World. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Grahame, I. 1980. Reintroduction of captive bred Cheer Pheasants Catreus wallichi. Int. Zoo Yearb. 20:36–40. Grahame, I. 1988. Up-date on the World Pheasant Association Cheer Pheasant reintroduction project in Pakistan. Pp. 615–622 in B. L. Dresser, R. W. Reece and E. J. Maruska, eds. Proceedings 5th World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity. Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden Cincinnati, Ohio: Cincinnati Zoo. October 9–12, 1988. Greenlaw, J. S., and R. F. Miller. 1983. Calculating incubation periods of species that sometimes neglect their last eggs: The case of the Sora. Wilson Bull. 95:459–461. Greenwell, G. A., C. Emerick, and M. Biben. 1982. Inbreeding depression in Mandarin Ducks: A preliminary report on some continuing experiments. Avic. Mag. 88:145–148. Greenwood, P.J. 1980. Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Anim. Behav. 28:1140–1162. Grier, J. W., and R. W. Fyfe. 1987. Preventing research and management disturbance. Pp. 173–182 in B. A. Giron Pendleton, B. A. Millsap, K. W. Cline, and D. M. Bird, eds. Raptor Management Techniques Manual. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation. Griffith, B., J. M. Scott, J. W. Carpenter, and C. Reed. 1989. Translocation as a species conservation tool: Status and strategy. Science 245:477–480.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Gwinner, E. 1965. Beobachtungen uber Nestbau und Brutpflege des Kolkraben (Corvus corax) in Gefangenschaft. J. Ornithol. 106:145–178. Haig, S. M., J. D. Ballou, and S. R. Derrickson. 1990. Management options for preserving genetic diversity: Reintroduction of Guam Rails to the wild. Conserv. Biol. 4:290–300. Hay, R. 1990. New Zealand: The turning point. World Birdwatch 12:11. Hedrick. P. W., and P. S. Miller. 1992. Conservation genetics: techniques and fundamentals. Ecol. Applications 2:30–46. Henshaw, H. W. 1902. Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, being a complete list of the birds of the Hawaiian possessions with notes on their habits. Honolulu: T. G. Thrum. Hochachka, W. M. 1988. The effect of food supply on the composition of Black-billed Magpie eggs. Can. J. Zool. 66: 692–695. Hochachka, W. M., and D. A. Boag. 1987. Food shortage for breeding Black-billed Magpies (Pica pica): An experiment using supplemental food. Can. J. Zool. 65:1270–1274. Holyoak, D. 1967. Breeding biology of the Corvidae. Bird Study 14:153–168. Hoshide, H. M., A. J. Price, and L. Katahira. 1990. A progress report on Nene Branta sandvicensis in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park from 1974–89. Wildfowl 41:152–155. Husby, M. 1986. On the adaptive value of brood reduction in birds: Experiments with the Magpie Pica pica. J. Anim. Ecol. 55:75–83. International Species Inventory System (ISIS). 1984–1991. Species Distribution Report Abstracts—Birds. Apple Valley, Minnesota: ISIS. ISIS. 1990. ARKS: Animal Records Keeping System. Apple Valley, Minnesota: International Species Inventory System. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 1990. The 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature. 228 pp.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow International Zoo Yearbook. 1959–1990. Species of birds bred in captivity and multiple generation births. Int. Zoo Yearb. 1:156; 2:277; 3:283; 4:254; 5:364; 6:424; 7:347; 8:338; 9:267; 10:304; 11:315–316; 12:371; 13:315; 14:363–364; 15:355; 16:375; 17:296; 18:365; 19:344; 20:415; 21:304; 22:405; 23:307; 24/25:505–506; 26:466; 27:395; 28:444; 29:305–306. James, H. F., and S. L. Olson. 1991. Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithol. Monogr. 46: 1–88. Jenkins, C. D., S. A. Temple, C. van Riper, and W. R. Hansen. 1989. Disease-related aspects of conserving the endangered Hawaiian Crow. ICBP Tech. Publ. 10:77–87. Jones, C. D., and A. W. Owadally. 1988. The life histories and conservation of the Mauritius Kestrel Falco punctatus (Temminck 1823), Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri (Prevost 1843), and Echo Parakeet Psittacula eques (Boddaert 1783). Proc. Royal Soc. of Arts & Sci. of Mauritius 5:80–130. Jones, C. G., F. N. Steele, and A. W. Owadally. 1981. An account of the Mauritius Kestrel captive breeding project. Avic. Mag. 87:191–207. Jones, C. G., D. M. Todd, K. J. Swinnerton, and Y. Mungroo. 1988. The release and management at liberty of captive bred Pink Pigeons Columba mayeri on Mauritius. Pp. 393–414 in B. L. Dresser, R. W. Reece, and E. J. Maruska, eds. Proceedings 5th World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity, October 9–12. Cincinnati, Ohio: Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden. Jones, C. G., D. M. Todd, and Y. Mungroo. 1989. Mortality, morbidity and breeding success of the Pink Pigeon (Columba (Nesoena) mayeri). Pp. 89–113 in J. E. Cooper, ed. Disease and Threatened Birds: ICBP Tech, Publ. No. 10. Cambridge: International Council for Bird Preservation. Jones, C. G., W. Heck, R. Lewis, Y. Mungroo, and T. J. Cade. 1991. A summary of the conservation management of the Mauritius Kestrel (Falco punctatus). Kear, J. 1986. Captive breeding programs for waterfowl and flamingos. Int. Zoo Yearb. 24/25:21–25. Kear, J., and A. J. Berger. 1980. The Hawaiian Goose. Calton, Poyser.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Kepler, C. B. 1977. Captive propagation of Whooping Cranes: a behavioral approach. Pp. 231–241 in S. A. Temple, ed. Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Endangered Species. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Kiff, L. California Condor Recovery Team Minutes - 16 October 1986. Unpublished Report. Kiff, L. California Condor Recovery Team Minutes - 6 June 1989. Unpublished Report. Kilham, L. 1984b. Cooperative breeding of American Crows. J. Field Ornithol. 55:349–356. Kilham, L. 1984b. Play-like behavior of American Crows. Fla. Field Natl. 12:33–36. Kilham, L. 1984c. Intra- and extrapair copulatory behavior of American Crows. Wilson Bull. 96:716–717. Kilham, L. 1985a. Behavior of American Crows in the early part of the breeding cycle. Fla. Field Natl. 13:25–31. Kilham, L. 1985b. Territorial behavior of American Crows. Wilson Bull. 97:389–390. Kilham, L. 1986. Renestings of American Crows in Florida and predation by raccoons. Fla. Field Natl. 14:21–23. Kincaid, A. L., and M. K. Stoskopf. 1987. Passerine dietary iron overload syndrome. Zoo Biol. 6:79–88. King, W. B. 1977–1979. Red data book 2, Aves. Morges, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. King, W. B. 1985. Island birds: Will the future repeat the past? Pp. 3–15 in P. J. Moors ed. Conservation of Island Birds. ICBP Tech. Publ. No. 3. Cambridge, International Council for Bird Preservation. Kleiman, D. 1989. Reintroduction of captive mammals for conservation: Guidelines for reintroducing endangered species into the wild. BioScience 39 (3):152–160. Klint, T., and M. Enquist. 1980. Pair formation and reproductive output in domestic pigeons. Behav. Processes. 6:67–72. Kress, S. W. 1977. Establishing Atlantic Puffins at a former breeding site. Pp. 373–377 in S.A. Temple, ed. Endangered Birds: Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Lewin, V., and G. Lewin. 1984. The Kalij Pheasant, a newly established game bird on the island of Hawaii. Wilson Bull. 96:634–646. Lewis, J. C. 1990. Captive propagation in the recovery of whooping cranes. End. Species Update 8:46–48. Lieberman, A., J. W. Wiley, J. V. Rodriguez, and J. M. Paez. 1991. The first experimental reintroduction of captive-reared Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) into Columbia, South America. AAZPA Ann. Conf. Proc. 1991:129–136. Ligon, J. D. 1971. Late summer-autumnal breeding of the Pinon Jay in New Mexico. Condor 73:147–153. Lockie, J. D. 1955. The breeding and foraging of Jackdaws and Rooks with notes on Carrion Crows and other Corvidae. Ibis 97:341–369. Lockwood, J. P., and P. W. Lipman. 1987. Holocene eruptive history of Mauna Loa volcano. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350:500–535. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Lourie-Fraser, G. 1983. Captive breeding of the Lord Howe Island Woodhen: an endangered rail. A.F.A. Watchbird 10:30–44. Love, J.A. 1984. The Return of the Sea-Eagle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lowenstein, L. J., and M. L. Petrak. 1978. Iron pigment in the livers of birds. Pp. 127–135 in R. J. Montali, and G. Migaki, eds. The Comparative Pathology of Zoo Animals. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Lyles, A. M., and R. M. May. 1987. Problems leaving the ark. Nature 326:245–246. Maguire, L. A. 1991. Risk analysis for conservation biologists. Conserv. Biol. 5:123–125. McGowan, K. J., and G. E. Woolfenden. 1991. A sentinel system in the Florida Scrub Jay. Anim. Beha. 37:1000–1006. McMillan, J. L., D. H. Ellis, and D. G. Smith. 1987. The role of captive propagation in the recovery of the Mississippi Sandhill Crane. End. Spec. Tech. Bull. 12:6–8. Merton, D. V. 1975. The Saddleback…its status and conservation. Pp. 61–64 in R.D. Martin, ed. Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity. London: Academic Press.
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Merton, D., and R. Empson. 1989. But it doesn't look like a parrot. Birds International 1:60–72. Miller, B., and H. F. Mullette. 1985. Rehabilitation of an endangered Australian bird: The Lord Howe Island Woodhen Tricholimnas sylvestris (Schlater). Biol. Conserv. 34:55–95. Mills, J. A. and G. R. Williams. 1979. The status of New Zealand birds. Pp. 147–168 in M. Tyler, ed. Status of Australian Wildlife. Proceedings of the Centenary Symposium of the Royal Zoological Society of South Australia, 21–23 September, 1978 . Morner, T. 1986. Zoological gardens and the conservation of wildlife in Sweden. Int. Zoo Yearb. 24/25:189–192. Morrison, M. 1991. San Clemente Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi): Request to initiate captive propagation program. Unpubl. rept. to California Dept. of Game and Fish: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Moore, R. R., Clague, D. A., Rubin, M. and W. A. Borhrson. 1987. Hualalai Volcano: A preliminary summary of geologic, petrologic and geophysical data. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350:571–585. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Moorehouse, R. J., and R G. Powlesland. 1991. Aspects of the ecology of the Kakapo Strigops habroptilus liberated on Little Barrier Island (Huaturu), New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 56:349–365. Mueller-Dombois, D. 1987. Forest dynamics in Hawaii. Trends Ecol. and Evol. 2:216–220. Mueller-Dombois, D., K. W. Bridges, and H. L. Carson, eds. 1981. Island Ecosystems: Biological Organization in Selected Hawaiian Communities. U.S. International Biological Program Series 15. Stroudsburg, Penn.: Hutchinson Ross Publ. Co. pp. 583. Munro, G. C. 1944. Birds of Hawaii. Honolulu: Tongg. Murphy, D. D., K. E. Freas, and S. B. Weiss. 1990. An environmental-metapopulation approach to population viability analyses for a threatened invertebrate. Conserv. Biol. 4:41–51. Newton, I., P. E. Davis, and J. E. Davis. 1983. Ravens and buzzards in relation to sheep farming and forestry in Wales. J. Appl. Ecol. 19:681–706
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Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow Ralls, K., and J. Ballou. 1983. Extinction: Lessons from zoos. Pp. 164–184 in C. M. Schoenwald-Cox, S.M. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and W. L. Thomas, eds. Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animals and Plant Populations. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings. Ralls, K. K. Brugger, and J. Ballou. 1980a. Inbreeding and juvenile mortality in small populations of ungulates. Science 206:1101–1103. Ralls, K. K. Brugger, and A. Glick. 1980b. Deleterious effects of inbreeding in a herd of Dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas. Int. Zoo Yearb. 20:137–146. Ralls, K., P. H. Harvey, and A. M. Lyles. 1986. Inbreeding in natural populations of birds and mammals. Pp. 35–56 in M.E. Soulé, ed. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Assocs. Ralph, C. J., and C. van Riper, III. 1985. Historical and current factors affecting Hawaiian native birds. Bird Conserv. 2:7–42. Reed, C., and D. Merton. 1991. Behavioral manipulation of endangered New Zealand birds as an aid toward species recovery. Acta XX Cong. Intern. Ornithol. CI: 2514–2522. Reid, B., and C. Roderick. 1973. New Zealand Scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae and Brown teal Anas auklandica chlorotis in captivity. Int. Zoo Yearb. 13:12–15. Richards, P. R. 1973. Breeding the Rook (Corvus frugilegus) in captivity. Avic. Mag. 79:82:2–4. Richards, P. R. 1976. The nesting and handrearing of the Red-billed Blue Magpie Urocissa erythrorhyncha. Avic. Mag. 82:2–4. Richardson, H., N. A. M. Verbeek, and R.W. Butler. 1985. Breeding success and the question of clutch size of Northwestern Crows Corvus caurinus. Ibis 127:174–183. Richner, H. 1992. The effect of extra food on fitness in breeding carrion crows. Ecology 73(1): 330–335. Risdon, D. H. S. 1960. The breeding of Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) at Dudley Zoo. Avic. Mag. 66:206–208. Roles, D. G. 1971. The breeding Mexican Green Jay at the Jersey Zoological Park Cyanoeorox-yncas. Avic. Mag. 77:20–22.
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