Index

A

Acid precipitation, 36-38, 97

Adjacent lands, 24, 33-36, 71

Advisory board, 11, 108-109

Agriculture, 34

Air pollution, 16, 60.

See also Pollution

Air Quality Division, 68

Allen, Durward, 5, 45

Allen and Leopold report, see ''A Review and Recommendations Relative to the NPS Science Program'' (Allen and Leopold report)

Antiquities Act (1906), 18

Appalachian brook trout, 26-27

Assateague Island National Seashore, 32

B

Balsam woolly adelgid, 36

Beach erosion, see Coastal erosion

Big Cypress National Preserve, 33

Biosphere Reserves, 94, 98, 99

Black bear, 27

Boating, recreational, 34

Brown trout, 27

Budget

committee recommendations regarding, 100-106

structure and funding of, 8-9, 11, 76-83

Bureau of Land Management, 73

Burton, Philip, 47

C

Canyonlands National Park, 31

Cape Cod National Seashore, 32-33

Cape Hatteras National Seashore, 16, 32

Cape Lookout National Seashore, 32

Channel Islands National Park, 90

Chief scientists

authority of, 68

committee recommendations regarding role of, 11-12, 106-107

recommendations from regional, 50



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Science and the National Parks Index A Acid precipitation, 36-38, 97 Adjacent lands, 24, 33-36, 71 Advisory board, 11, 108-109 Agriculture, 34 Air pollution, 16, 60. See also Pollution Air Quality Division, 68 Allen, Durward, 5, 45 Allen and Leopold report, see ''A Review and Recommendations Relative to the NPS Science Program'' (Allen and Leopold report) Antiquities Act (1906), 18 Appalachian brook trout, 26-27 Assateague Island National Seashore, 32 B Balsam woolly adelgid, 36 Beach erosion, see Coastal erosion Big Cypress National Preserve, 33 Biosphere Reserves, 94, 98, 99 Black bear, 27 Boating, recreational, 34 Brown trout, 27 Budget committee recommendations regarding, 100-106 structure and funding of, 8-9, 11, 76-83 Bureau of Land Management, 73 Burton, Philip, 47 C Canyonlands National Park, 31 Cape Cod National Seashore, 32-33 Cape Hatteras National Seashore, 16, 32 Cape Lookout National Seashore, 32 Channel Islands National Park, 90 Chief scientists authority of, 68 committee recommendations regarding role of, 11-12, 106-107 recommendations from regional, 50

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Science and the National Parks results of 1972 assignment of, 45 role of regional, 68 Civilian Conservation Corps, 41 Clean Air Act (1977), 90 Coastal erosion, 16, 32 Committee to Improve the Science and Technology Programs of the National Park Service charges to, 21-22 conclusions reached by, 60, 88, 111 recommendations, 9-12, 88-100, 106-109 views regarding budget, 83-84 Concessions Policy Act (1965), 90 Conservation legislation, 18-19 The Conservation Foundation (CF), 5, 47, 79 Cooperative park study unit (CPSU), 72, 103 Cultural resource management and research, 61, 74 Cumberland Island National Seashore, 32 Cutthroat trout, 34 D Dall sheep, 29 Death Valley National Monument, 33 Denali National Park, 29, 31 Department of Defense, 71 Devil's Hole pupfish, 33 E Ecosystems change as central to functioning of, 19 effects of global climate change on, 70 interventions resulting from inadequate knowledge of, 2-3, 19-20, 23-24, 26-27, 39 need for long-term research on, 92-93, 101-102 need for monitoring of, 60 Elk, 27 Endangered species, 2-3 Endangered Species Act (1973), 90 Everglades National Park enabling legislation for, 90 Field Research Laboratory, 73 fire management in, 31 land use and water management problems outside boundaries of, 33-34 Everhardt, Gary, 45 F "Federal Resource Lands and Their Neighbors" (The Conservation Association) , 47 Fire management, 3 interagency cooperation in, 71 research in, 31-32 Fish population, 3, 19, 24, 26-27, 39 Fishing regulations, 34 Forest Service, 71 Fraser fir, 36 G Geographic Information Systems Division, 68-69 Glacier National Park, 31, 73 Glen Canyon Dam, 17 Global Change Program, 38 Global climate change, 70 Gordon, John C., 42, 51 Gordon report, see "National Parks: From Vignettes to a Global View" (National Parks and Conservation Association) (Gordon report) Grand Canyon National Park air pollution in, 16 riparian ecosystem damage in, 17 Grand Teton National Park, 30 Grants grade scientists, 75, 76 Grants program, 11, 107-108

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Science and the National Parks Great Smoky Mountains National Park research on threats and mitigation in, 36 wildlife interventions in, 26-27, 39 Grizzly bear studies, 71, 73 Groundwater pumping, 33 Gypsy moth, 60 H Herbst, Robert, 46 Historic Sites Act (1935), 90 I "Investing in Park Futures" (National Parks and Conservation Association) , 79 Isle Royale National Park, 27-28, 59 K Katmai National Park and Preserve, 25 Kenai Fjords National Park, 25 Kudzu, 60 L Lacey Act (1900), 18, 90 Legislation, national park, 18-21, 90 Legislative mandate committee recommendations for, 10-11, 88-100 reviews calling for, 56 Leopold, A. Starker, 4, 5, 41, 45 Leopold report, see "Wildlife Management in the National Parks" (Leopold et al.) "Limited Progress Made in Documenting and Mitigating Threats to Parks" (General Accounting Office), 50 Lincoln Home National Historic Site, 30 M Mammoth Cave National Park, 35-36 Man and the Biosphere Program, 71, 90 Moose, 27-28 Mount McKinley National Park, see Denali National Park Murie, Adolph, 29 N National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), 36-38 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 71 National Environmental Policy Act (1969), 90 National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 79 National Natural Landmarks Program, 71 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 71 National Park Service Act of 1916 (Organic Act), 1, 2, 18-21, 90 National Park Service (NPS) budget structure and funding of, 11, 76-83, 100-106 building credibility and quality in, 11-12 coordination and planning in, 68-69, 71-73, 84-85 current research program of, 6-9, 87-88 interventions carried out by, 2-3, 19-20, 23-24, 26-27, 39 legislative mandate for, 10-11, 19, 56, 88-100 levels of authority and functions of, 7, 60-65 mission of, 1-2, 18, 52

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Science and the National Parks personnel data regarding, 7, 73-76. See also Chief scientists realizing vision for, 12-13, 109-111 recommendations resulting from reviews of, 54-57, 88-89 reluctance to use science by, 57 reporting structures within, 65-68 research reports studying, 4-6, 41-54 responsibilities of, 15 National park system assessment of threats and mitigation measures in, 32-38 changing conditions for conservation in, 17-21 conclusions regarding problems facing, 38-40 overview of, 15-16 present conditions in, 16-17 resource inventories and monitoring for change in, 25-27, 92-94, 104, 105 studies of natural dynamics and processes in, 27-32 wilderness classification within, 98 "National Parks: From Vignettes to a Global View" (National Parks and Conservation Association) (Gordon report), 6, 42, 51-53, 56 National Parks and Conservation Association national science program estimates of, 78 reports published by, 5, 6, 42, 46, 50-51, 79 "National Parks for a New Generation" (Conservation Foundation), 79 "National Parks for the 21st Century: The Vail Agenda" (National Park Service), 42, 53-54 "Natural Resources Assessment and Action Program" (National Park Service), 79 Natural science research administration of, 61 personnel involved in, 74 Natural Sciences Advisory Committee, 45 New England brook trout, 26 North Cascades, 69 "NPCA Adjacent Lands Survey: No Park Is an Island" (National Parks and Conservation Association), 46 O Off-road vehicle management, 32-33 Office of Natural Science Studies, 45 Operation of the National Park Service (ONPS), 77, 78 Organic Act. See National Park Service Act of 1916 P Park boundaries, see Adjacent lands Park visitors, see Visitors Parks-for-science research, 96-101 Peer review, 74, 107-108 Personnel committee recommendations regarding, 11-12, 106-107 involved in research program, 73-76 review recommendations regarding hiring of, 56 see also Chief scientists Pest management program, 71 Piping plover, 32, 33 Pollution acid rain, 36-38, 97 conditions regarding air, 16, 60 example of water, 35-36 in parks today, 16

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Science and the National Parks R Rainbow trout, 27 Redwood National Park, 90 "A Report by the Advisory Committee to the National Park Service on Research" (National Research Council) (Robbins report), 4, 42, 44-45, 67-68 Research funding for, 78-79, 83 importance to national park system of, 2-4, 23-24 integrated through multiple year programming, 73 parks-for-science, 96-101 schedules for conducting, 13 science-for-parks, 91-96, 101 types of, 91-92 Research grade evaluation, 74 Research grade scientists, 75, 76 "Research in the Parks: An Assessment of Needs" (National Parks and Conservation Association), 42, 51, 56, 79 Research reviews conclusions regarding and recommendations made by, 54-57 discussion of past, 42, 44-47, 49-54 list of major, 43 overview of, 4-6, 41-42 Resource inventories committee recommendations regarding, 92-94, 104, 105 importance of, 60 maintenance and coordination of, 68-69 need for, 25-27 Resource management committee recommendations regarding, 91-96 cultural, 61, 74, 95 funds allocated for, 8-9, 80-81 levels of authority of, 7, 60-65 major reviews of programs in, 43 personnel involved in, 73-76 requirements for, 2 research as part of, 6, 61 review recommendations regarding, 55, 56 see also Research reviews; Science program "A Review and Recommendations Relative to the NPS Science Program" (Allen and Leopold report), 4-5, 42, 45-46 Robbins, William J., 4, 42 Robbins report, see "A Report by the Advisory Committee to the National Park Service on Research" (National Research Council) (Robbins report) Rocky Mountain National Park, 36-37 S Science calls for in individual park legislation, 90 as management tool, 87-88, 96 NPS functions for, 64-65 reluctance to use, 57, 89 separate funding for, 105-106 Science advisory board, 11, 108-109 Science-for-parks research, 91-96, 101 Science program committee conclusions regarding, 82-85 committee recommendations regarding, 9-12, 88-100. See also Committee to Improve the Science and Technology Programs of the National Park Service funding and autonomy for, 11, 77-83, 100-106 interagency cooperation in, 71, 73, 105

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Science and the National Parks need for, 12-13 objectives of, 59-60 personnel involved in, 73-76 summary of current, 6-9 Scientists conflict between managers and, 102-103 cross-training for, 110 job categories for, 75 personnel classifications for, 74 see also Chief scientists Sebelius, Keith, 47 Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park acid precipitation studies in, 36-37 fire management in, 31 Smoky madtom, 26, 39 South Florida Research Center, 73 Sport fishing, 34 Spotted owl studies, 73 "State of the Parks—A Report to the Congress on a Service Strategy for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural and Cultural Resource Management Problems" (National Park Service), 49 "State of the Parks: A 1980 Report to Congress" (National Park Service) , 47, 49, 83 U U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 105 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service budget of, 78, 82 interagency research with, 73, 105 professional staff of, 7, 67, 74 U.S. Forest Service, 67, 71, 73, 105 U.S. Geological Survey, 105 Udall, Stuart, 41, 44 V Valdez oil spill, 25 Vehicle management, 32-33 Virgin Islands National Park, 59 Visitor Services Project (VSP), 30-31 Visitors facilities for, 2-3, 20, 24 monitoring park use by, 60 study of behavior of, 30-31 W Water pollution, 35-36. See also Pollution Water resource management, 60 Water Resources Division, 69 Whalen, William, 45, 46 White House, 30 Wilderness Act (1964), 90 Wilderness classification, 98 Wildlife and Vegetation Division, 71 Wildlife Division, 41 Wildlife management, 41 "Wildlife Management in the National Parks" (Leopold et al.), 4, 42, 44 Wolves, 27-28 World Heritage programs, 90, 98, 99 Wright, George M., 41 Y Yellowstone National Park condition of northern range in, 27 fire management in, 32 research divisions in, 73 sport fishing regulations in, 34 Yellowstone Park Act of 1872, 18 Yosemite National Parks, 31