not been implemented, so the General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to assess NPS progress on its prevention and mitigation strategy. The resulting 1987 GAO report, "Limited Progress Made in Documenting and Mitigating Threats to Parks," concluded that "the Park Service's strategy for better managing park resources has yet to be fully implemented. Some parks do not have approved resource management plans, and the plans that have been prepared are not being used in formulating the Park Service's annual budgets. Further, many of the 11 initiatives intended to support the development and use of the plans were not followed through" (GAO, 1987).

Further deficiencies in the NPS science program were identified by the Park Service when, in December 1986, the 10 regional chief scientists participated in a workshop to develop their own recommendations for improving their science programs (Castleberry, 1987). They recommended the following actions:

  • Make better use of cooperative agreements for research.

  • Revise NPS planning to better integrate natural-and cultural-resource research.

  • Hold regular meetings of managers to review research proposals.

  • Identify emerging national problems.

  • Subject all research to periodic evaluations.

  • Relax limitations on attendance at scientific meetings.

  • Develop mechanisms for job exchanges between scientists.

  • Evaluate the NPS publications program.

  • Hold semiannual or annual meetings of regional chief scientists.

  • Make science program presentations to the regional directors.

Most of the recommendations from the regional chief scientists were designed to give greater autonomy and responsibility to NPS scientists, and to allow their interaction with the broader scientific community.

More recently, NPCA conducted a detailed analysis of NPS operations and prepared a nine-volume report, based

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