The Wildlife and Vegetation Division provides direction and technical input to servicewide programs in management of wildlife and vegetation, including threatened, endangered, and exotic species. It is responsible for the NPS integrated pest management program. It provides expert scientific assistance to support management and policy decisions throughout NPS. The division coordinates the NPS's involvement in the National Natural Landmarks Program and the Man and the Biosphere Program, and it coordinates servicewide research on issues of national and international significance, including biological diversity, global climate change, and the biological effects of acid precipitation.

Although these divisions are useful in facilitating servicewide coordination, coordination of research does not end within the agency itself. It must extend outward to other agencies and to the academic community. One example would be outreach to the U.S. Forest Service, which conducts extensive research of direct application to the NPS. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense all have substantial experience with remotely sensed data and geographic information systems that is relevant to NPS needs. NPS science personnel need to know what is happening in other quarters, to share information, and to transfer knowledge.

The recognition that national parks cannot operate as islands separate from their surroundings has resulted in greater efforts to cooperate with other agencies to solve natural resource problems. This is especially true in areas where adjacent lands are managed by other agencies. Fire management research, for example, has a long history of interagency scientific cooperation. Because of the unique needs of land management agencies in controlling, predicting, and understanding the behavior and effects of fire, there has been considerable cooperation between NPS and Forest Service scientists. Although research information can be integrated through such forums as annual conferences, land managers do not always use the available information in their decision making. Other examples of interagency research integration include studies to support grizzly bear recovery (with U.S.



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