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Contributing Authors

THOMAS ARRISON is a research associate in the National Research Council (NRC) Office of Japan Affairs. Prior to joining the NRC in 1990, he completed business internships in the semiconductor division at Hitachi, Ltd. and in the economics division at the Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd. He received M.A. degrees in public policy and Asian studies from the University of Michigan.

C. FRED BERGSTEN is director of the Institute for International Economics and has had extensive experience in the U.S. government, including posts as Assistant for International Economic Affairs at the National Security Council and Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs. He also served as an international economist at the State Department and as a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, the Brookings Institution, and as a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is currently a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Japan. The author of numerous publications concerning the world economy, Dr. Bergsten received an A.B. from Central Methodist College and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

ERICH BLOCH, formerly director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), is the chairman of the National Research Council's Committee on Japan. Mr. Bloch is the first Distinguished Fellow with the Council on Competitiveness. Prior to his time with NSF, Mr. Bloch held several positions with IBM Corporation. He holds a degree in electrical engineering from the



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Japan's Growing Technological Capability: Implications for the U.S. Economy A Contributing Authors THOMAS ARRISON is a research associate in the National Research Council (NRC) Office of Japan Affairs. Prior to joining the NRC in 1990, he completed business internships in the semiconductor division at Hitachi, Ltd. and in the economics division at the Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd. He received M.A. degrees in public policy and Asian studies from the University of Michigan. C. FRED BERGSTEN is director of the Institute for International Economics and has had extensive experience in the U.S. government, including posts as Assistant for International Economic Affairs at the National Security Council and Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs. He also served as an international economist at the State Department and as a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, the Brookings Institution, and as a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is currently a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Japan. The author of numerous publications concerning the world economy, Dr. Bergsten received an A.B. from Central Methodist College and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. ERICH BLOCH, formerly director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), is the chairman of the National Research Council's Committee on Japan. Mr. Bloch is the first Distinguished Fellow with the Council on Competitiveness. Prior to his time with NSF, Mr. Bloch held several positions with IBM Corporation. He holds a degree in electrical engineering from the

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Japan's Growing Technological Capability: Implications for the U.S. Economy University of Buffalo and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Mr. Bloch is a recipient of the National Medal of Technology and holds several patents in his field. JOHN CANTWELL is Reader in International Economics at the University of Reading and has been a visiting professor at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the University of Social Sciences, Toulouse. His main research areas are the economics of technological change and international production, and he is currently directing an Economic and Social Research Council project on the historical structure of innovative activity in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States. Dr. Cantwell is the author of Technological Innovation and Multinational Corporations and is also the president of the European International Business Association. WILLIAM F. FINAN is a Principal and Managing Director of the Law & Economics Consulting Group's Washington Office. His research and consulting experience has focused on international business and economic issues, especially as they affect the competitiveness of U.S. high technology firms, as well as the business practices of large Japanese electronics firms. He has had extensive experience in international trade litigation and trade policy-related matters. He has served as Staff Economist for the Senate Finance committee and as a Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for International Trade in the U.S. Department of Commerce. GEORGE GAMOTA was previously Chief Scientist for the MITRE Corporation's Bedford Group and is currently Director of the MITRE Institute. Before joining MITRE, Dr. Gamota was founder of Science & Technology Management Associates, President of Thermo Electron Technologies Corp., professor of physics and Director of the Institute of Science and Technology at the University of Michigan, Director for Research in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and a member of the technical staff with Bell Laboratories. Dr. Gamota also participated in several studies, missions, and task forces that served in an advisory capacity to various government agencies. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Michigan and is the principal author of Gaining Ground , a book describing Japan's strides in science and technology. EDWARD M. GRAHAM is a Senior Fellow at the Institute for International Economics. Previously he held positions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of North Carolina, and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. While with the Treasury Department, he was seconded for two years to the Secretariat of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Dr. Graham is the coauthor of Foreign Direct Investment

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Japan's Growing Technological Capability: Implications for the U.S. Economy in the United States and principal author of Technology, Trade, and the U.S. Economy. He earned a bachelor's degree in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and master's and doctoral degrees from Harvard University. MARTHA CALDWELL HARRIS is Director of the National Research Council's Office of Japan Affairs. She holds an M.A. and a Ph.D. in political science with a specialization in Asian Studies from the University of Wisconsin (Madison). She was a foreign research associate at the University of Tokyo, taught courses at the University of Washington and George Washington University, and served as project director at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment prior to joining the National Research Council staff. DALE W. JORGENSON is currently Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics at Harvard University and Director of the Program on Technology and Economic Policy at the Kennedy School of Government. He also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, and was visiting professor at Stanford University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Dr. Jorgenson is coauthor of Tax Reform and the Cost of Capital, as well as managing editor of the monograph series Contributions to Economic Analysis. A recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association, Dr. Jorgenson holds economics degrees from Reed College and Harvard University and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. FUMIO KODAMA is professor of innovation policy at Saitama University's Graduate School of Policy Science. From 1988 to 1991, he was director in research of the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (Science and Technology Agency). He was a Visiting Professor at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government for the 1991–1992 academic year. Dr. Kodama is the recipient of the 1991 Science and Technology Minister's Award for Research Excellence, a member of the Engineering Academy of Japan and chairman of a working committee on international affairs. He is the author of the recently published Analyzing Japanese High Technologies: the Techno-Paradigm Shift. Dr. Kodama received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in engineering from the University of Tokyo. MASAHIRO KURODA is a professor of economics, Faculty of Business and Commerce, Keio University. JIM F. MARTIN is presently Director of the Palo Alto Laboratory of Rockwell International's Science Center, which is the company's corporate research center for artificial intelligence. Dr. Martin recently returned from

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Japan's Growing Technological Capability: Implications for the U.S. Economy nearly five years in Japan where he served as director of Rockwell's Asia-Pacific Technology Liaison Office from its inception in 1986. Prior to his assignment in Japan, Dr. Martin conducted and led various research and development efforts at the Science Center, especially in robotics and intelligent machines. He holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from Iowa State University and a Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. G. LAURIE MILLER has been head of the Interactive Systems Research Department (formerly Robotics Research Department) at AT&T Bell Laboratories since 1982, where he specializes in instrumentation, robotics, sensors, and measurement. He holds over 30 patents in his field, and is the author of numerous publications. Dr. Miller received a bachelor's degree in physics, a master's degree in mathematics, and a Ph.D. in nuclear physics, all from the University of London. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Physics as well as a fellow of the Electrical and Electronic Engineers. DAVID C. MOWERY is associate professor of business and public policy in the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. He received undergraduate and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University. Dr. Mowery taught at Carnegie-Mellon University; has been a Council on Foreign Relations Fellow at the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative; study director for a National Academy of Sciences study; and has written a number of books on technology and economic growth. RICHARD R. NELSON is Henry R. Luce Professor of International Political Economy at Columbia University, where his main fields of research include general economics, industrial organization, domestic monetary and fiscal theory and policy. Earlier, he held faculty positions of assistant and associate professor at Oberlin College and Carnegie Technology University and, most recently, was Director of the Institute of Social Policy at Yale University. Dr. Nelson also served as staff economist for the President's Council of Economic Advisers. He holds a Ph.D. from Yale University. HIROSHI OTA was Director-General for Scientific and Technological Affairs for the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs prior to being appointed Japan's ambassador to Saudi Arabia in 1992. During his career with the ministry, Mr. Ota has served as Deputy Director-General of the Economic Cooperation Bureau, Deputy Director-General for General Affairs in the Economic Affairs Bureau, Director of the Scientific Affairs Division and the Policy Planning Division, as well as in various positions at the Japanese embassies in Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom. He is a

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Japan's Growing Technological Capability: Implications for the U.S. Economy graduate of the University of Tokyo and earned an M.A. in international relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. SHIGETAKA SEKI is Deputy Director of the Technology Policy Research and Analysis Division for the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). He is now involved with technology assessments for MITI's white paper on industrial technology, which will be used as a basis for technology policy. Mr. Seki worked on technology issues as senior research fellow in the International Institute for Global Peace founded by former prime minister Nakasone. DAVID J. TEECE is Mitsubishi Bank Professor, Walter A. Haas School of Business, and director of the Center for Research in Management at the University of California, Berkeley. Prior to joining the Berkeley faculty, Dr. Teece was associate professor of economics at the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University. Having a strong interest in innovation, technology strategy, science and technology policy, and antitrust, he has written extensively on industrial organization, corporate strategy, and public policy. Dr. Teece received a B.A. and M.Comm. from the University of Canterbury and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from the University of Pennsylvania. CARL WILLIAMS is a research analyst at the Law and Economics Consulting Group. He was previously a software engineer at Carlson Electronics Corporation. He received an M.A. in Asian Studies-International Relations from the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University. MASARU YOSHITOMI is Director General of the Policy Coordination Bureau of the Economic Planning Agency (EPA) of Japan. The agency serves as an economic advisor to the prime minister and other Japanese government leaders, particularly in the areas of macroeconomic policy, structural reforms, and long-term trends in technology and industrial structure. He has served as Director General of EPA's Economic Research Institute and as Director of the General Economics Branch in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Economics and Statistics Department. Dr. Yoshitomi received a doctorate in economics from the University of Tokyo.