R&D is always undertaken with an eye on the market—even long-term basic research projects.

In order to benefit from these and the dozens of other fine reports and books on these subjects that have appeared in recent years, both Americans and Japanese must carry out substantive and long-term changes in the operation of business and government. Neither country can any longer afford the luxury of looking at this problem as a simple "them versus us" competition: the two economies are so mutually interlocked that there is no turning back. The future economic strength of both countries is dependent upon developing methods of cooperation that improve industrial productivity and competitiveness in each country while making it possible to work together effectively. This discipline will not be easy, and the rewards will not appear in the short term, but by committing to making the needed changes, America will be able to remain technically competitive in the future, and Japanese industry will become a more welcome participant in the global economy.

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