Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century

Committee on Aeronautical Technologies

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1992



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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century Committee on Aeronautical Technologies Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1992

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by Contract NASW-4003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 92-64197 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04732-3 Available in limited supply from The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Also available for sale from National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 S578 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, September 1992 Second Printing, January 1993 Third Printing, May 1993

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES STEERING COMMITTEE EUGENE E. COVERT, Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., Chairman RICHARD G. BRADLEY, Director, Flight Sciences, General Dynamics Corporation, Fort Worth, Tex., Vice-Chairman MAX E. BLECK, President, Raytheon Company, Lexington, Mass. EDWARD S. CARTER, Jr., Retired Chief Scientist, Sikorsky Division of United Aircraft, Fairfield, Conn. WOLFGANG H. DEMISCH, Director of Research, UBS Securities, New York, N.Y. ALEXANDER H. FLAX, Home Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. KENNETH I. GRINA, Retired Vice-President, Engineering, Boeing Vertol Company, Media, Pa. ROBERT H. KORKEGI, Retired Director, Hypersonics Research Laboratory, United States Air Force, and Retired Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. DUANE T. McRUER, President and Technical Director, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif. GARNER W. MILLER, Retired Senior Vice-President, Maintenance and Engineering, USAir, Naples, Fla. MARIO J. MOLINA, Professor, Department of Chemistry/Earth and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. HARVEY O. NAY, Retired Vice-President of Engineering, Piper Aircraft Corporation, Vero Beach, Fla. ROBERT B. ORMSBY, Jr., Retired Aircraft Group President, Lockheed Corporation, Newhall, Calif. HERSHEL SAMS, Retired Vice-President and General Manager, National Aerospace Plane, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Petersburg Beach, Fla. JOHN D. WARNER, Vice-President, Engineering, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Wash. ALBERTUS D. WELLIVER, Corporate Senior Vice-President, Engineering and Technology, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash. (ex officio) Staff: JOANN C. CLAYTON, Director VICKI S. JOHNSON, Senior Program Officer (March 1990 – July 1991) MARTIN J. KASZUBOWSKI, Study Director (July 1991–July 1992) CHRISTINA A. WEINLAND, Senior Project Assistant

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century PANEL ON AERODYNAMICS ROBERT B. ORMSBY, Jr., Retired Aircraft Group President, Lockheed Corporation, Newhall, Calif., Chairman EDWARD S. CARTER, Jr., Retired Chief Scientist, Sikorsky Division of United Aircraft, Fairfield, Conn. ROBERT H. KORKEGI, Retired Director, Hypersonics Research Laboratory, United States Air Force, and Retired Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. HELEN L. REED, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Ariz. PAUL E. RUBBERT, Unit Chief, Aerodynamics Research, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash. RICHARD G. BRADLEY, Director, Flight Sciences, General Dynamics Corporation, Fort Worth, Tex. (ex officio) Technical Advisors: ROY V. HARRIS, Jr., Director for Aeronautics, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. VICTOR L. PETERSON, Deputy Director, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. PANEL ON AVIONICS AND CONTROL JOHN D. WARNER, Vice-President, Engineering, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Wash., Chairman SUSAN C. GARING, Senior Engineer, Air Vehicle Software, Link Flight Simulation Division, CAE-Link Corporation, Binghamton, N.Y. JOEL F. KUHLBERG, Manager, Engine Controls Engineering, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Conn. STEPHEN S. OSDER, Chief Scientist, McDonnell Douglas Helicopter, Mesa, Ariz. Technical Advisor: H. MILTON HOLT, Chief, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. PANEL ON GENERAL SYSTEMS HERSHEL SAMS, Retired Vice-President and General Manager, National AeroSpace Plane, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Petersburg Beach, Fla., Chairman WILLIAM C. DIETZ, Vice-President and Program Director, Special Products, General Dynamics Corporation, Fort Worth, Tex.

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century CHARLES W. ELLIS, Retired Vice-President V-22 Program, Boeing Vertol Company, Newtown Square, Penn. (Deceased) ALEXANDER H. FLAX, Home Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. R. RICHARD HEPPE, Consultant, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company and Lockheed Corporation, Pasadena, Calif. ALBERTUS D. WELLIVER, Corporate Senior Vice-President, Engineering and Technology, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash. Technical Advisor: THEODORE G. AYERS, Deputy Director, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Facility of the Ames Research Center), Edwards, Calif. PANEL ON INFORMATION SCIENCES AND HUMAN FACTORS DUANE T. McRUER, President and Technical Director, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif., Chairman RENWICK E. CURRY, President, Tycho Systems, Atlanta, Ga. JOHN K. LAUBER, Member, National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C. HERMAN A. REDIESS, Manager, Aerospace Engineering & Systems Operation, Sparta, Laguna Hills, Calif. Technical Advisors: JEREMIAH F. CREEDON, Director for Flight Systems, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. TOM SNYDER, Director, Aerospace Systems, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. PANEL ON MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES ROBERT G. LOEWY, Institute Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y., Chairman KENNETH I. GRINA, Retired Vice-President Engineering, Boeing Vertol Company, Media, Pa. PAUL A. LAGACE, Associate Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. HARRY L. LEMASTERS, Vice-President, Commercial Programs, United Technologies, Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Conn. HARVEY O. NAY, Retired Vice-President of Engineering, Piper Aircraft Corporation, Vero Beach, Fla.

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century Technical Advisor: CHARLES P. BLANKENSHIP, Director for Structures, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. PANEL ON OPERATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES WESLEY L. HARRIS, Vice-President, University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tenn., Chairman MAX E. BLECK, President, Raytheon Company, Lexington, Mass. WOLFGANG H. DEMISCH, Director of Research, UBS Securities, New York, N.Y. GARNER W. MILLER, Retired Senior Vice-President, Maintenance and Engineering, USAir, Naples, Fla. MARIO J. MOLINA, Professor, Department of Chemistry/Earth and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Technical Advisors: JEREMIAH F. CREEDON, Director for Flight Systems, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. ROBERT E. MACHOL, Chief Scientist, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C. PANEL ON PROPULSION FRANK E. MARBLE, Professor Emeritus, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., Chairman ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. JAMES N. KREBS, Retired Vice-President, General Electric Corporation, Santa Fe, N. Mex. FRANKLIN K. MOORE, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. MAURICE E. SHANK, Consultant and Retired Vice-President, Pratt & Whitney of China, Bellevue, Wash. and York Harbor, Maine MONTGOMERIE C. STEELE, Senior Chief Engineer, Garrett Engine Division, Phoenix, Ariz. EUGENE E. COVERT, Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. (ex officio) Technical Advisor: NEAL T. SAUNDERS, Director of Aeronautics, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD Duane T. McRuer, President and Technical Director, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif., Chairman James M. Beggs, Partner, J.M. Beggs Associates, Arlington, Va. Richard G. Bradley, Director, Flight Sciences, Ft. Worth Division, General Dynamics, Ft. Worth, Tex. Robert H. Cannon, Jr., Charles Lee Powell Professor and Chairman, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. Eugene E. Covert, Professor, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Ruth M. Davis, President and CEO, Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Va. Wolfgang H. Demisch, Director of Research, UBS Securities, New York, N.Y. Charles W. Ellis, Retired Vice-President V-22 Program, Boeing Vertol Company, Newtown Square, Penn. (Deceased) Owen K. Garriott, Vice-President, Space Programs, Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, Ala. John M. Hedgepeth, Retired President, Astro Aerospace Corporation, Santa Barbara, Calif. Robert G. Loewy, Institute Professor, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y. John M. Logsdon, Director, Space Policy Institute, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Frank E. Marble, Richard L. Hayman and Dorothy M. Hayman Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Professor of Jet Propulsion, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. John H. McElroy, Dean of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Tex., (Term ended 12/31/91) Garner W. Miller, Retired Senior Vice-President for Technology, USAir, Naples, Fla. Franklin K. Moore, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Harvey O. Nay, Retired Vice-President of Engineering, Piper Aircraft Corporation, Vero Beach, Fla. Frank E. Pickering, Vice-President and General Manager, Aircraft Engines Engineering Division, General Electric Company, Lynn, Mass. Anatol Roshko, von Karman Professor of Aeronautics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. Maurice E. Shank, Retired Vice-President, Pratt & Whitney of China, Inc., Bellevue, Wash. and York Harbor, Maine Thomas P. Stafford, Vice-Chairman, Stafford, Burke, and Hecker, Inc., Alexandria, Va. Martin N. Titland, Chief Operating Officer, CTA, INCORPORATED, Rockville, Md. Albertus D. Welliver, Corporate Senior Vice-President, Engineering and Technology, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash.

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century Staff: JoAnn C. Clayton, Director Noel E. Eldridge, Program Officer Martin J. Kaszubowski, Senior Program Officer Allison C. Sandlin, Senior Program Officer Susan K. Coppinger, Project Assistant Anna L. Farrar, Administrative Associate Maryann Shanesy, Senior Secretary Christina A. Weinland, Administrative Assistant

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century FOREWORD Over the last decade, foreign aircraft manufacturers have made significant inroads into the global aircraft market, to the detriment of U.S. interests. The commuter aircraft market has been almost completely lost to foreign manufacturers, the subsonic transport market is seriously threatened, and foreign competitors are already positioning themselves to capture the future supersonic transport market. Foreign governments, in close relationships with their aircraft industries, have invested heavily in the basic aeronautics research and technology that is necessary for developing and maintaining a competitive posture, meeting future constraints on air traffic management system capacity, and reducing the environmental impact of aircraft. This is particularly true in the advanced subsonic transport market. Although the availability of advanced technology is only one of several factors that relate to overall competitiveness, without continued access to that technology the leadership that the U.S. subsonic transport aircraft manufacturers now enjoy will continue to erode. Whereas technology alone may not ensure economic success in competition in the aircraft industry, without competitive technology, U.S. manufacturers will fail economically. Clearly, maintenance of U.S. standing in the world industry is an imperative national need. The current effort of the U.S. government to support basic aeronautics research and technology is inadequate to meet that need. Although the aeronautics research program supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration contains elements that contribute to advanced subsonic aircraft technology, the funding level is well below that needed to be competitive. The threat is growing, and the nation's technological capability is not being positioned for the future. In March 1985 the Aeronautical Policy Review Committee of the Office of Science and Technology Policy issued a report, National Aeronautical R&D Goals: Technology for America's Future. Three priorities were defined. First and foremost was advanced subsonic aircraft, then high-speed civil aircraft, and finally transatmospheric flight vehicles. In February 1987 a second report was issued by that group entitled National Aeronautical R&D Goals: Agenda for Achievement. It, too, emphasized the importance of advanced subsonic transports to both the national economy and the national transportation infrastructure. Page four of the second report describes as the leading priority in subsonics: "a new generation of superior U.S. aircraft." That section concludes with the warning, "We are approaching an important crossroad: one path leading to steady erosion of U.S. participation in world markets; the other to economic growth and job creation." The warning has gone unheeded. Eugene E. Covert Chairman

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 PART I— OVERVIEW     CHAPTER 1:   OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY   25     Introduction   25     Maintaining a Strong Aeronautics Program   26     Requirements for Growth   29     The Role of Technology   31     The Current NASA Aeronautics Program   34 PART II— STATUS AND OUTLOOK BY INDUSTRY SEGMENT     CHAPTER 2:   SUBSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT   41     Introduction   41     Current Industry Status   42     Market Forecast   46     Barrier Issues   49     NASA's Contributions to Advanced Subsonic Transports   52     Recommended Reading   60 CHAPTER 3:   HIGH-SPEED CIVIL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT   61     Introduction   61     Current Industry Status   62     Market Forecast   64     Barriers   65     NASA's Contributions to High-Speed Civil Transport   68

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century CHAPTER 4:   SHORT-HAUL AIRCRAFT   73     Introduction   73     Current Industry Status   73     Market Forecast   84     Barriers   88     NASA's Contributions to Short-Haul Aircraft   90     Recommended Reading   94 PART III— TECHNICAL DISCIPLINES     CHAPTER 5:   ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES   97     Introduction   97     Emissions   97     Noise   99     Sonic Boom   101     Recommended Reading   102 CHAPTER 6:   OPERATIONAL ISSUES   103     Introduction   103     Airport Capacity   104     Air Traffic Management System   106 CHAPTER 7:   AERODYNAMICS   109     Introduction   109     Low Speed and High Lift for Subsonic Configurations   114     Subsonic Aircraft Propulsion/Airframe Integration   118     Aerodynamic Cruise Performance   118     Low Speed and High Lift for Supersonic Configurations   125     Supersonic Aircraft Propulsion/Airframe Integration   127     Aerodynamic Aspects of Conventional Takeoff and Landing Flight Dynamics   129     Aerodynamics of Rotorcraft   131     Wind Tunnel, Flight, and Air-Breathing Propulsion Test Facilities   137     Recommended Reading   147 CHAPTER 8:   PROPULSION   149     Introduction   149     Propulsion for Advanced Subsonic Aircraft   150     Propulsion for High-Speed Civil Transport   159     Propulsion for Short-Haul Aircraft   164     High-Speed Computation for Propulsion   168     Materials and Processing   171

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century     Smart Engines   175     Turbomachinery Component Technology   179     Combustors and Emissions   182 CHAPTER 9:   MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES   187     Introduction   187     Fundamental, Broadly Applicable Research   191     Focused Technology Addressing Subsonic Transport Aircraft   202     Focused Technology Addressing Supersonic Transport Aircraft   209     Focused Technology Addressing Short-Haul Aircraft   213     Regulatory Requirements   215     Conclusions   216 CHAPTER 10:   AVIONICS AND CONTROL   221     Introduction   221     Flight Path Management   224     Pilot/Vehicle Interface   229     Avionics and Controls Integration   232     Control Functional Application   235     Aircraft Power and Actuation   240 CHAPTER 11:   COGNITIVE ENGINEERING   243     Introduction   243     Visions for 2020—Precedents and Context for Research Action   246     To Make Good the Visions   253     The Challenges   254     Safety Enhancement in the Air Transportation System   254     Assurance of Valid and Reliable System Operations   263     Effective Management and Distribution of Information   264 APPENDIX A: Bibliography   269 APPENDIX B: Abbreviation and Acronyms   277 APPENDIX C: NASA Fiscal Year 1992 Aeronautics Funding (Table)   281 APPENDIX D: Participants   285 INDEX   289

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURE 2-1   Fuel burn comparison for short- and medium-range airplanes (design range ≤ 4,000 nautical miles).   43 FIGURE 2-2   Fuel burn comparison for long-range aircraft (design range ≥ 4,000 nautical miles).   44 FIGURE 2-3   Airplane price trends.   44 FIGURE 2-4   Direct operating cost trends.   45 FIGURE 2-5   Projected world passenger traffic.   46 FIGURE 2-6   Potential traffic distribution.   47 FIGURE 2-7   Projected worldwide aircraft departures.   47 FIGURE 2-8   Number of seats versus range capability.   48 FIGURE 2-9   Installed turbine engine efficiency (TSFC = thrust-specific fuel consumption).   50 FIGURE 2-10   Aerodynamic efficiency.   51 FIGURE 2-11   Potential airframe weight savings.   52 FIGURE 2-12   Direct operating cost breakdown for the 747-400 (1990 U.S. dollars).   53 FIGURE 2-13   Direct operating cost goals (range = 1,000 nautical miles, 1990 U.S. dollars).   54 FIGURE 3-1   International passenger traffic.   65 FIGURE 3-2   Market capture.   67 FIGURE 4-1   Commuter fleet forecast.   79 FIGURE 4-2   World civil rotorcraft production forecast.   81 FIGURE 4-3   General aviation unit shipments/billings.   84 FIGURE 4-4   General aviation fatal accidents and paid claims.   85 FIGURE 7-1   Variation of CLmax with Reynolds number for a simple swept wing.   115 FIGURE 7-2   Improvements in transonic wing technology.   121 FIGURE 7-3   FAR 36 measurement locations.   126 FIGURE 7-4   Takeoff noise contours.   127 FIGURE 7-5   Comparison of major subsonic tunnels.   139 FIGURE 7-6   Comparison of major transonic tunnels.   140

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century FIGURE 7-7   Comparison of major supersonic tunnels.   141 FIGURE 8-1   Overall pressure ratio for high-bypass ratio turbofans, maximum climb.   153 FIGURE 8-2   Compressor discharge temperature for high-bypass ratio turbofans, sea level static.   154 FIGURE 8-3   Turbine inlet temperature for high-bypass ratio turbofans, sea level static.   155 FIGURE 8-4   Actively stabilized compressor suppresses rotating stall.   176 FIGURE 8-5   Active compressor stabilization moves the stall point to lower mass flows.   177 FIGURE 8-6   Nitric oxide emissions versus severity index(s), current and future engines.   183 FIGURE 9-1   Tensile strength per unit mass as a function of operating temperature for several composite materials.   193 FIGURE 9-2   Expected temperature capability of turbine engine bearing systems as a function of service entry year.   207 FIGURE 10-1   Integration of elements needed for cooperative global airspace management.   225 FIGURE 10-2   Taxonomy of ATM automation aids.   226 TABLE ES-1   Primary Benefits from Each Discipline   5 TABLE ES-2   NASA Research and Development Funding Mix (1992)   8 TABLE ES-3   1992 NASA Aeronautics Funding by Discipline   9 TABLE 1-1   Primary Benefits from Each Discipline   33 TABLE 1-2   1992 NASA Aeronautics Program Funding   35 TABLE 1-3   1992 NASA Aeronautics Funding by Discipline   37 TABLE 2-1   Direct Operating Cost (DOC)—Major Drivers   45 TABLE 2-2   Advanced Subsonic Transport Funding by Discipline   55 TABLE 3-1   High-Speed Civil Transport Funding by Discipline   69 TABLE 4-1(A)   Short-Haul Aircraft Delivered, by Region (as of February 1, 1991)   77 TABLE 4-1(B)   Short-Haul Aircraft on Order, by Region (as of February 1, 1991)   78 TABLE 4-2   International Consortia for New Helicopters and VTOL Aircraft   83 TABLE 4-3   Short-Haul Funding by Discipline   91 TABLE 7-1   Potential L/D Improvements   113 TABLE 7-2   Current Research Aircraft   142 TABLE 8-1   Factors Providing Improved Core Thermal Efficiency   156 TABLE 8-2   Factors Providing Improved Propulsion Efficiency   156 TABLE 8-3   Improvements in Nacelle and Installation Technology   157 TABLE 8-4   Cycle Parameters for Axial Centrifugal Engines   167 TABLE 8-5   Potential Applications for Advanced Composites   172 TABLE 11-1   Key Features of Two Scenarios for the Air Transportation System in 2020   250-251

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Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century Aeronautical Technologies for the Twenty-First Century

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