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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 FREDERIK WILLIAM HOLDER ZACHARIASEN February 5, 1906-December 24, 1979 BY MARK G. INGHRAM FREDERIK WILLIAM HOLDER ZACHARIASEN's contributions to science have been rich and varied. He was a leader in the determination of the crystal structure of inorganic crystals using x-ray diffraction. Though primarily an experimentalist, he contributed to theory whenever he found the theory inadequate. In over 200 published papers he included experiments on the crystal structure of minerals, on the structure of inorganic crystals, on the structure of anionic groups, on atomic and ionic radii, on the glassy state, on the liquid state, on actinide crystal chemistry, on high-pressure phases, on crystal structure and superconductivity, on the melting process, and on the variation of bond strengths with bond lengths. His contributions to theory include papers on temperature diffuse scattering of x-rays, on stacking disorder, on the phase problem, and on extinction including the Borrmann effect. Each of these theoretical efforts was followed by careful experimental investigations to establish the correctness of the theory he had developed. Linus C. Pauling of the University of California at Berkeley, who also concentrated on the determination of crystal structure during his early years, said of Zachariasen's work (1975), ''I feel that he is to be classed among the outstand-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 ing scientists of the twentieth century, and at the top in the field of inorganic crystal structures.'' Robert Penneman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory said (1975), "The breadth of his contributions is enormous; there is no major advance in crystalography in one half century that does not bear his mark." Bernd T. Matthias of the University of California, San Diego, said (1975), "His was a monumental achievement in understanding the detailed nature of the whole periodic system." Such accolades abound. THE MAN Zachariasen had absolutely no use for pretense or titles. His friends and associates always called him by one of his two nicknames, "Willie" or "Zach." It would give completely the wrong impression of "The Man'' if I were to refer to him as "Zachariasen" in this memoir. I will therefore use the name he preferred: "Willie." He would want it no other way. Willie was born in Langesund, at the mouth of the Langesundfjord, in southeastern Norway. Willie's father was a sea captain. Langesund is about 15 kilometers from Brevick, which is at the center of the nepheline-synetic pegmatite veins which have yielded over thirty new species of minerals. The islands of the Langesundfjord are also rich in deposits of rare silicates and other well-crystallized minerals. Raymond Pepinsky, one of Willie's early Ph.D. students, relates a story in which Willie, decades after his youth, correctly identified on sight a Langesund eudidymite specimen which had been mislabeled by the Krantz firm in Germany. X-ray examination proved Willie correct. "Willie, how could you have known?" he was asked. "I played on the Langesund islands when I was a boy," he replied with his usual warm grin, "and I remember those crystals." Such mineral crystals so interested Willie that when he went to

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 Oslo University in 1923, he studied in the Mineralogical Institute under the guidance of the great geochemist Victor Moritz Goldschmidt. Goldschmidt (1888-1947) was one of the first to recognize that crystal structure data as determined using x-rays could reveal the distribution of elements within crystalline minerals. Among the crystals which interested Goldschmidt, and which Willie studied while still in Oslo, were some rare earth crystals. Crystals containing these elements abound on the Langesundfjord islands. As Pepinsky tells us, "In order to protect the richest of such deposits for his own leisurely study of its mineral species, Goldschmidt purchased one of the islands Willie knew best." Willie published his first paper, "Uber die Kristallstrucktur von BeO," in 1925 at the age of nineteen. He published nineteen more papers before publishing his Ph.D. thesis in 1928 at the age of twenty-two. He was awarded the Ph.D. that same year. He was then appointed assistant professor at the University of Oslo, but was granted a leave for 1928-29 to accept a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship to study with Sir Lawrence Bragg at Manchester University in England. After his postdoctoral at Manchester, Willie returned to Oslo. Early in 1930 Willie received an offer from Arthur Holly Compton, Nobel Prize winner for the discovery of the Compton effect, to join the faculty of the Department of Physics of the University of Chicago as an assistant professor. Willie had been recommended to Compton by Bragg. Willie accepted that appointment and stayed at the University of Chicago until he retired in 1974. One week before Willie sailed for New York he married Ragni (Mosse) Durban-Hansen, granddaughter of the pioneer Norwegian geochemist W. C. Brogger (1851-1949). Brogger, among other things, had discovered and first

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 described the minerals of the Langesund region. In many of Willie's publications on the structure of minerals he refers to "Brøgger's well-known monograph on the pegmatite minerals of the Langesundfjord." Clearly Willie loved and was immersed in the study of minerals and crystallography while young and in Norway. The invitation to the University of Chicago in 1930 was an effort on Compton's part to build up x-ray studies at Chicago. It is of interest to note that, at that time, Compton was not chairman of the Department of Physics. He built up the group in x-rays almost on his own. Willie arrived on campus on the same day as another new assistant professor active in x-ray studies: Samuel King Allison. Allison had also been invited to join the faculty by Compton. Allison already knew the campus since he had grown up in the University area and had received his Ph.D. from the University seven years earlier. The Zachs and the Allisons became the closest of friends—a friendship that lasted the rest of their lives. Also added to the faculty in 1930 as an instructor was Ernest O. Wollan. In addition to these four faculty members active in x-ray studies there were three postdoctorals: Marcel Schein from 1929-31 as a Rockefeller Foundation fellow, Elmar Dershem from 1929-42 as a research associate, and John H. Williams from 1931-33 as a National Research Council fellow. Williams had earlier worked with Allison at the University of California, Berkeley. In addition to the very close friendship with the Allisons, the Zachs also became close lifelong friends with the Scheins and John Williams. Willie had little respect for Compton as a person. Three of these seven—Allison, Compton, and Williams—worked on the physics of production of x-rays and on their interaction with matter. Dershem and Schein worked in similar areas, except with very soft x-rays. Wollan worked on the scattering of x-rays by gasses. Willie was

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 alone in crystal structure determination. During the few years this group was together, almost all of their research was published independently. There were three exceptions, two papers by Dershem and Schein and one by Wollan and Compton. Compton and Allison did publish jointly an extensive and excellent reference book, X-Rays in Theory and Experiment (1934). In spite of the extensiveness of that book, it contained nothing on Willie's love, crystal structure. Shortly after that book was written, all except Willie changed their fields of research: Compton, Dershem, and Schein to cosmic rays; Allison, Williams, and Wollan to nuclear physics. Willie continued, single-mindedly, to determine what he could about the structure of matter using x-rays as a tool. Willie had very little financial support for his work during the thirties. Aside from funds to support Compton's work (supported in part from the outside) and operating A. A. Michelson's two grating ruling engines (maintained during that period by the chairman of the department, Henry Gordon Gale), there was very little money left for others. Willie had to use homemade x-ray tubes built by his associate Dershem. When in 1938 his kenotron rectifier burned out, he had to shut down his research for six months until the department could find the $75 necessary to buy a new rectifier. All trips to meetings of the American Physical Society were at participants' expense. Willie had to make his own slides. A typical procedure for such trips was for Willie and Sam Allison to take one car, add as many of their students as possible and head for the meeting. If the meeting was to be in Washington, D.C., for example, they would stop overnight at the Gamma Alpha house (scientific fraternity) at the University of Ohio, and then at a cheap tourist house in Washington. This lack of support from the department of which he was a member continued until 1943.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 In 1943 Willie joined the Manhattan Project. During the next two years he helped to unravel the chemistry, and to determine the crystal structure, of the transuranic elements and compounds. Many who were involved in that project feel that it would have taken much more time to do these jobs if it had not been for Willie's insight and genius in crystal structure determination. Late in 1945 Willie first accepted administrative duties. His influence and effectiveness in these positions has positively affected many lives. In 1928, just two years before Willie went to the University of Chicago, a national survey had rated the Department of Physics of that university number one in the country. This was due in large part to the presence at that time of Michelson, Milliken, and Compton, three Nobel Prize winners. During the thirties, under the guidance of Gale and Compton, that rank slipped badly. This, according to Willie, was due primarily to the autocratic rule within the department, and to the hiring by the department of its own students as junior faculty, largely to assist the faculty member under whom that student had received the Ph.D. degree. The changes Willie made were momentous and lasting. He immediately ended the domination of the department by Michelson's grating ruling engines by giving them away, one to Bausch and Lomb, and one to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He immediately turned the department from autocratic to democratic. The then tenured staff of the department met for the first time in many years to consider departmental affairs. Without much delay they voted to terminate the appointments of ten nontenured staff members. They also voted to reject as a member of the Department of Physics a new professor whom Compton had just hired, as usual without consulting anyone else in the department—a ticklish situation which Willie had to

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 handle. A position for this professor was finally found in another part of the university. Next, the staff voted to appoint Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller as professors, Robert F. Christy and Walter H. Zinn as associate professors, and John H. Simpson as instructor. It was Willie's job to invite these men to join the staff and to persuade them to accept. Willie did invite them, and all accepted. With this success, the Chemistry Department, partly due to Willie's needling, invited Willard F. Libby, Joseph E. Mayer, and Harold Urey. This enabled Willie, with the support of the physics faculty, to invite Maria G. Mayer to become a volunteer professor of physics, since the university's nepotism rules at that time forbade two members of one family holding faculty positions. She accepted. A bit later, with the support of the physics faculty, Willie invited Gregor Wentzel and others. The fact that all these outstanding physicists accepted positions at the University of Chicago is testimony to Willie's persuasiveness and the confidence which people put in his work and leadership. With this staff there was no trouble in attracting the most outstanding students in the country. By 1949 the department was once again rated tops in the nation, and among the Ph.D.'s graduated between 1945 and 1950 were five who were later awarded Nobel Prizes in physics. As soon as Willie took over, with the unanimous support of the faculty, Willie introduced bylaws by which the department was to operate. According to these bylaws the department was no longer to be administered by a chairman who acted as a head, but by a true chairman. To Willie "chairman" meant that the person administering the department could do only those things that the faculty voted while the chairman occupied the chair at faculty meetings. All faculty were to vote on new appointments;

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 all faculty of higher rank on promotions. A policy committee, a budget committee, a curriculum committee, a services committee, etc., were established made up of faculty, by vote of the faculty. With this reorganization the old autocratic procedures of Gale and Compton were gone. As far as graduate students were concerned, Willie persuaded the faculty to accept the rule that all Ph.D. theses had to be published under the students' names alone. He felt that if a piece of research had not been done independently enough to justify publication by the student alone, it was not acceptable as establishing that the student could do independent research. Willie's standards were always very high. This rule held until the late 1960s when exceptions were made for students in high-energy physics, where a staff member's participation was required before that student could get access to a large accelerator. Willie had a heart attack in January 1949 and a second attack four months later. With the second heart attack Willie resigned the chairmanship of the Department of Physics and slowed down a bit. He had published twenty-seven papers in 1948-49. Willie, however, was not one to walk on eggs. In 1954-55 he published fifteen papers. With the department once again going downhill, Willie was drafted once again to take over the chairmanship in 1956. Again he worked his magic. In 1959 the faculty of the Division of Physical Sciences persuaded him to take over as dean of the division. Again he did his magic, and the caliber and support of the faculty throughout the division improved. Having accomplished what he thought he could, he resigned as dean in 1962, two years before his term was up, and returned to his research. In 1970 Willie had a bad case of phlebitis. His best friend Sam Allison had died of complications from phlebitis a few years earlier. Two heart attacks and phlebitis were enough to cause him to

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 rethink his future. He was just at retirement age. He was offered a special postretirement appointment but decided to accept that appointment only part time, so that he could spend some time "living." Since Willie and his wife, Mossa, had many friends from the Manhattan Project living in Los Alamos and its neighbor Santa Fe, New Mexico, they decided to move to Santa Fe. There they purchased the first home they had ever owned. Willie did as he had agreed; he and Mossa returned to the University of Chicago for one quarter of each year, for three years, to give one course. He kept quite active in research through his contacts with associates in the Los Alamos scientific laboratories, mainly his friends Finley H. Ellinger and Robert A. Penneman. He also worked with his friend and associate Bernd Matthias at the University of California, San Diego. He published several papers with each. He also spent time enjoying food, music, art, mystery stories, Indian lore, his home, and "living." Willie was a superb teacher both at the graduate and undergraduate levels. I well recall one course I took from him in graduate-level classical mechanics in the late thirties. This course was considered one of the very best in the department at that time. Willie would enter the lecture room, place his notebook on the desk, and proceed to give a beautiful, understandable, and rigorous lecture. Then, after answering questions he would pick up his still-closed notebook and leave. Only once in that particular eleven-week course did he open that notebook to check on a formula he had derived. He decided that it was correct, though in a different form than his notes. He then closed his notebook and finished the lecture. He just never made mistakes. It was not until years later that I learned that such lectures were the result of careful preparation on his part. Some years later, when I was chairman of the De-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 partment of Physics, I asked Willie to give an introductory course in physics (physical science) for nonscience students at the undergraduate level. He agreed and did a superb job in this difficult assignment. Student evaluations were enthusiastic. He developed a close personal relationship with the roughly 150 students in his class. The course was given during the period of student protests in the late 1960s. The University of Chicago students were no different from any other college students, and students, including students from his class, took over the administration building of the university. Willie was one of a few faculty whom the students would let into that building. They obviously enjoyed conferring with him. He helped calm troubled waters. Willie sponsored a number of students for their Ph.D. degrees, all of these in the period 1930-40. His Ph.D. students were John Albright, Donald A. Edwards, Ssu Mien Fang, Jane (Hall) Hamilton, Dorothy Heyworth, Richard C. Keen, Raymond Pepinsky, Stanley Siegel, Rose (Mooney) Slater, and G. E. Ziegler. He had two assistants while lie was working for the Manhattan Project: Wallace Koehler and Ann Plettinger. Koehler stayed with Willie for a few years after World War II working toward a Ph.D., but he did not finish. Plettinger stayed with Willie as an assistant until he left Chicago. She was coauthor with Willie on nine of his post-World War II papers. Willie accepted no students seeking advanced degrees during or after World War II. He felt that the work he was doing was chemistry, not physics, and that it was not a suitable field of research for physicists. He was in a physics department. Willie did accept several postdoctorals who came to him with outside named fellowships. He used the criterion of outside support as one indication of the independence, competence, drive, and real interest of these people in the work he was doing. He felt that if he provided the support, he would

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1937 The crystal structure of potassium acid dihydronium pentaborate KH 2(HO3)2B5O10 (potassium pentaborate tetrahydrate). Z. Kristallogr. 98:266-74. The crystal structure of potassium metaborate, K3(B3O6). J. Chem. Phys. 5:919-22. 1938 Comments on the article by A. P. R. Wadlund: Radial lines in Laue spot photographs. Phys. Rev. 53:844. 1940 A theoretical study of the diffuse scattering of x-rays by crystals Phys. Rev. 57:597-602. The crystal structure of sodium formate, NaHCO2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62:1011-13. With S. Siegel. Preliminary experimental study of new diffraction maxima in x-ray photographs. Phys. Rev. 57:795-97. Diffraction maxima in x-ray photographs. Nature 145:1019. 1941 On the diffuse x-ray diffraction maxima observed by C. V. Raman and P. Nilakantan. Phys. Rev. 59:207-8. On the theory of the temperature diffuse scattering. Phys. Rev. 59:766. Temperature diffuse scattering of a simple cubic lattice. Phys. Rev. 59:860-66. The temperature diffuse scattering maxima for rocksalt. Phys. Rev. 59:909. On the theory of temperature diffuse scattering. Phys. Rev. 60:691. 1945 Theory of X-ray Diffraction in Crystals. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 252 pp. 1947 Direct determination of stacking disorder in layer structures. Phys. Rev. 71:715-17. 1948 The UCl3 type of crystal structure. J. Chem. Phys. 16:254.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 The crystal structure of U2F9. J. Chem. Phys. 16:425. Crystal radii of the heavy elements. Phys. Rev. 73:1104-5. Double fluorides of potassium or sodium with uranium, thorium, or lanthanum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70:2147-51. The crystal structure of the normal orthophosphates of barium and strontium. Acta Crystallogr. 1:263-65. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. I. New structure types. Acta Crystallogr. 1:265-68. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. II. The crystal structure of Cs2PuCl6. Acta Crystallogr. 1:268-69. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. III. A study of the disorder in the crystal structure of anhydrous uranyl fluoride. Acta Crystallogr. 1:277-81. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. IV. The crystal structure of Ca(UO2)O2 and Sr(UO2)O2. Acta Crystallogr. 1:281-85. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. V. The crystal structure of uranium hexachloride. Acta Crystallogr. 1:285-87. 1949 Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. VI. The Ce2 S3Ce3S4 type of structure. Acta Crystallogr. 2:57-60. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. VII. The crystal structure of Ce2O2S, La2O2S and Pu2O2S. Acta Crystallogr. 2:60-62. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. VIII. Crystal structure studies of uranium silicides and of CeSi2, NpSi2 and PuSi 2. Acta Crystallogr. 2:94-99. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. IX. The crystal structure of Th7S12. Acta Crystallogr. 2:228-91. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. X. Sulfides and oxy-sulphides. Acta Crystallogr. 2:291-96. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XI. The crystal structure of a-UF5 and of ß-UF5. Acta Crystallogr. 2:296-98. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XII. New compounds representing known structure types. Acta Crystallogr. 2: 388-90. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XIII. The crystal structure of U2F9 and NaTh2F9. Acta Crystallogr. 2:390-93.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. Rec. Chem. Prog. (Spring):47-51. With R. C. L. Mooney. Crystal structure studies of oxides of plutonium. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1442-7. New York: McGraw-Hill. The crystal structure of plutonium nitride and plutonium carbide. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1448-51. New York: McGraw-Hill. The crystal structure of PuSi2. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1451-53. New York: McGraw-Hill. Crystal structure studies of sulfides of plutonium and neptunium. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1454-61. New York: McGraw-Hill. X-ray diffraction studies of the fluorides of plutonium and neptunium: Chemical identity and crystal structure. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1462-72. New York: McGraw-Hill. Crystal structure studies of chloride, bromides, and iodides of plutonium and neptunium. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1473-85. New York: McGraw-Hill. The crystal structure studies of sodium plutonyl and sodium neptunyl acetates. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1486-88. New York: McGraw-Hill. The crystal structure NpO2 and NpO. In The Transuranium Elements. National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14B, pp. 1489-91. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1950 With S. Fried and F. Hagemann. The preparation and identification of some pure actinium compounds J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:771-75. With R. Elson, S. Fried, and P. Sellers. The tetravalent and pentavalent states of protactinium. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:5791. 1951 Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XIV. Oxyfluorides, XOF. Acta Crystallogr. 4:231-36.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1952 Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XV. The crystal structure of plutonium sesquicarbide. Acta Crystallogr. 5: 17-19. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XVI. Identification and crystal structure of protactinium metal and of protactinium monoxide. Acta Crystallogr. 5:19-21. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XVII. The crystal structure of neptunium metal. Acta Crystallogr. 5: 660-64. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XVIII. Crystal structure studies of neptunium metal at elevated temperatures Acta Crystallogr. 5:664-67. A new analytical method for solving complex crystal structures. Acta Crystallogr. 5:68-73. On the anomalous transparency of thick crystals to X-rays. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38:378-82. Experimental crystallography. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 3:359-74. 1953 Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XIX. The crystal structure of the higher thorium hydride, Th4H15. Acta Crystallogr. 6:393-95. With F. H. Ellinger. The crystal structure of samarium metal and of samarium monoxide J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75:5650-52. 1954 Crystal chemistry of the 5f-series elements. In The Actinide Elements, ed. Seaborg and Katz, National Nuclear Energy Series, vol. 14A, pp. 769-96. New York: McGraw-Hill. With R. N. R. Mulford and F. H. Ellinger. A new form of uranium hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76:297-98. With F. H. Ellinger. The crystal structure of KPuO2CO3, NH4PuO2CO3 and RbAmO2CO3. J. Phys. Chem. 58:405-8. The precise structure of orthoboric acid. Acta Crystallogr. 7:305-10. With L. B. Asprey and F. H. Ellinger. Preparation, identification and crystal structure of a pentavalent americium compound, KAmO2F2 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76:5235-37. With P. A. Sellers, S. Fried, and R. E. Elson. The preparation of

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 some protactinium compounds and the metal J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76:5935-8. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XX. The crystal structure of tri-potassium uranyl fluoride. Acta Crystallogr. 7: 783-87. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XXI. The crystal structure of magnesium orthouranate. Acta Crystallogr. 7: 788-91. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XXII. The crystal structure of K3UF7. Acta Crystallogr. 7:792-94. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XXIII. On the crystal chemistry of uranyl compounds and of related compounds of transuranic elements. Acta Crystallogr. 7:795-99. 1955 With L. B. Asprey, and F. H. Ellinger, and S. Fried. Evidence for quadrivalent curium: X-ray data on curium oxides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77:1707. With F. H. Ellinger, C. E. Holley, Jr., B. B. McInteer, D. Pavonee, R. M. Potter, and E. Staritzsky. The preparation and some properties of magnesium hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77:2647. With F. H. Ellinger. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XXIV. The crystal structure and thermal expansion of yplutonium. Acta Crystallogr. 8:431-33. With C. E. Holley, Jr., R. N. R. Mulford, F. H. Ellinger, and W. C. Koehler. The crystal structure of some rare earth hydrides. J. Phys. Chem. 59:1226-28. With S. Fried. The chemistry and crystal chemistry of heavy element compounds. International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland. 1957 With F. H. Ellinger. Crystal structure of alpha-plutonium metal. J. Chem. Phys. 27:811-12. With L. B. Asprey, and F. H. Ellinger, and S. Fried. Evidence for quadrivalent curium. II. Curium tetrafluoride. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79:5825. 1958 With B. T. Matthias. Superconductivity of rhenium nitride. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 7:98.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 With B. T. Matthias and E. Corenzwit. Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in isomorphous compounds. Phys. Rev. 112:89. 1959 With F. H. Ellinger. Unit cell and thermal expansion of β-plutonium metal. Acta Crystallogr. 12:175-76. With H. A. Plettinger. Crystal chemical studies of the 5f-series of elements. XXV. The crystal structure of sodium uranyl acetate. Acta Crystallogr. 12:526-30. On the crystal structure of protactinium metal. Acta Crystallogr. 12:698-99. 1960 With D. B. McWhan, J. C. Wallman, B. B. Cunningham, L. B. Asprey, and F. H. Ellinger. Preparation and crystal structure of americium metal. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 15:185-87. 1961 With H. A. Plettinger. The crystal structure of lithium tungstate. Acta Crystallogr. 14:229-30. With M. Marezio and H. A. Plettinger. The crystal structure of gadolinium trichloride hexahydrate. Acta Crystallogr. 14:234-36. The structure of plutonium metal. In The Metal Plutonium, eds. A. S. Coffinbery and W. N. Miner, pp. 99-107. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1963 With C. E. Holley, Jr., and J. F. Stamper, Jr. Neutron diffraction study of magnesium deuteride. Acta Crystallogr. 16:352-53. With F. H. Ellinger. The crystal structure of beta plutonium metal. Acta Crystallogr. 16:369-75. With H. A. Plettinger. Refinement of the structure of potassium pentaborate tetrahydrate Acta Crystallogr. 16:376-79. The crystal structure of cubic metaboric acid. Acta Crystallogr. 16:380-84. The crystal structure of monoclinic metaboric acid. Acta Crystallogr. 16:385-89. With M. Marezio and H. A. Plettinger. Refinement of the calcium metaborate structure. Acta Crystallogr. 16:390-92. With M. Marezio and H. A. Plettinger. The bond lengths in the sodium metaborate structure. Acta Crystallogr. 16:594-95.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 With F. H. Ellinger. The crystal structure of alpha plutonium metal. Acta Crystallogr. 16:777-83. Interpretation of monoclinic powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Acta Crystallogr. 16:784-88. With M. Marezio and H. A. Plettinger. The crystal structure of potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate. Acta Crystallogr. 16:975-80. The secondary extinction correction. Acta Crystallogr. 16:1139-44. With H. A. Plettinger and M. Marezio. The structure and birefringence of hambergite, Be2BO3(OH). Acta Crystallogr. 16:1144-46. The crystal structure of palladium diphosphide. Acta Crystallogr. 16:1253-55. With Ch. J. Raub, T. H. Geballe, and B. T. Matthias. Superconductivity of some new Pt-metal compounds. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24:1093-100. 1964 Plutonium metal. In The Law of Mass-Action: A Centenary Volume, pp. 185-94. Det Norske Videnskaps-Akakemi I Oslo. Oslo: Universitetsforlanget. The crystal structure of lithium metaborate. Acta Crystallogr. 17:749-51. 1965 Experimental differentiation between primary and secondary extinction with application to radiation disorder in sodium chlorate. Acta Crystallogr. 18:703-5. Multiple diffraction in imperfect crystals. Acta Crystallogr. 18:705-10. With H. A. Plettinger. Extinction in quartz. Acta Crystallogr. 18:710-14. Dispersion in quartz. Acta Crystallogr. 18:714-16. With F. H. Ellinger. The crystal structures of PuGa4 and PuGa6. Acta Crystallogr. 19:281-83. Extinction. Trans. Am. Crystallogr. Assoc. 1:33-41. 1966 The crystal structure of Rh2Te3. Acta Crystallogr. 20:334-36. With T. H. Geballe, B. T. Matthias, K. Andres, E. S. Fisher, and T. F. Smith. Superconductivity of alpha-uranium and the role of 5f electrons. Science 152:755-57. With Robert Benz. Th3N4 crystal structure and comparison with that of Th 2N2O. Acta Crystallogr. 21:838-40.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1967 General theory of X-ray diffraction in real crystals. Phys. Rev. Let. 18:195-96. With B. T. Matthias, G. W. Webb, and J. J. Engelhardt. Melting-point anomalies. Phys. Rev. Lett. 18:781-84. Theory of X-ray diffraction in crystals with stacking faults. Acta Crystallogr. 23:44-49. A general theory of X-ray diffraction in crystals. Acta Crystallogr. 23:558-64. 1968 Experimental tests of the general formula for the integrated intensity of a real crystal. Acta Crystallogr. A24:212-16. Extinction in a lithium fluoride sphere. Acta Crystallogr. A24:324. Extinction and Borrmann effect in mosaic crystals. Acta Crystallogr. A24:421-24. Extinction and Borrmann effect in a calcium fluoride sphere. Acta Crystallogr. A24:425-27. With G. Arrhenius, E. Corenzwit, R. Fitzgerald, G. W. Hull, Jr., H. L. Luo, and B. T. Matthias. Superconductivity of Nb3(Al, Ge) above 20.5°K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61:621-28. 1969 Theoretical corrections for extinction. Acta Crystallogr. A25:102. Intensities and structure factors. Concluding remarks. Acta Crystallogr. A25:276. With Robert Benz. Crystal structure of the compounds U2N2X and Th2 (NO)2X with X = P, S, As, and Se. Acta Crystallogr. B25:294-96. 1970 With F. H. Ellinger. Unit cell of the Zeta phase of the plutonium-zirconium and the plutonium-hafnium systems. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California, report no. LA4367:1-4. With Robert Benz. Crystal structure of the compounds U2N2X and Th2 N2X with X = Sb, Te and Bi. Acta Crystallogr. B26:823-27. With A. S. Cooper, E. Corenzwit, L. D. Longinotti, and B. T. Matthias. Superconductivity: The transition temperature peak below four electrons per atom. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 67:313-19.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 With Robert Benz. Crystal structure of Th2CrN3, Th2MnN3, U9CrN3 and UMnN3. J. Nucl. Mater. 37:109-13. 1971 Precise crystal structure of phenakite, Be2SiO4. (In Russian.) Kristallogr. 16:1161. With A. L. Bowman, G. P. Arnold, and N. H. Krikorian. The crystal structure of U2IrC2. Acta Crystallogr. B27:1067. 1972 With A. C. Lawson. Low temperature lattice transformation of HfV2. Phys. Lett. 38A:1. With R. Benz and G. P. Arnold. ThCN crystal structure. Acta Crystallogr. B28:1724. With D. C. Johnston. High temperature superconductivity in Li-Ti-O ternary system. Mater. Res. Bull. 8:777-84. Metallic radii and electron configurations of the 5f-6d metals. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 35:3487-97. 1974 With F. H. Ellinger. Structure of cerium metal at high pressure. Phys. Rev. Lett. 32:773-74. 1975 On californium metal. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 37:1441-42. 1976 Bond lengths and bond strengths in compounds of the 5f elements. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Transplutonium Element Symposium, Baden-Baden, Germany, pp. 13-17. 1977 With F. H. Ellinger. The crystal structures of cerium metal at high pressure. Acta Crystallogr. A33:155-60. With J. P. Charvillat. Lattice parameters of the ternary compounds CmO2Sb, Cm2O2Bi, Am2O2Bi and Pu2(O,N)2Sb. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 13:161-63. On the crystal structure of a-cerium. J. Appl. Phys. 48:1391-94.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 61 1978 Crystal structure of the α''-cerium phases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:1066-67. Bond lengths in oxygen and halogen compounds of d and f elements. J. Less Common Met. 62:1-7. 1980 With R. Penneman. Application of bond length-strength analysis to 5f element fluorides J. Less Common Met. 69:369-77.

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