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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROGRAMS On Target for Women? Marsha Lakes Matyas and Linda Skidmore Dix, editors Ad hoc Panel on Interventions Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report has been reviewed by persons other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1963, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This material is based on work supported by the National Academy of Engineering's Technology Agenda to Meet the Competitive Challenge Program. Copyright 1992 by the National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 92-61248 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04778-1 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 S-617 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, October 1992 Second Printing, March 1993
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MILDRED S. DRESSELHAUS, Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair ESTHER M. CONWELL, Research Fellow, Xerox Corporation, Vice Chair BETSY ANCKER-JOHNSON, Chair, World Environment Center GEORGE CAMPBELL, JR., President, National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering JEWEL PLUMMER COBB, Trustee Professor of Biology, California State University—Los Angeles, and President Emerita, California State University—Fullerton CAROLA EISENBERG, Director of International Programs for Medical Students, Harvard Medical School BRUCE ANDREW FOWLER, Director of the Toxicology Program, University of Maryland Medical School LILLI S. HORNIG, Visiting Research Scholar, Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College PAT HILL HUBBARD, Senior Vice President for Public Affairs, American Electronics Association SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Professor of Physics, Rutgers University CHARLOTTE V. KUH, Executive Director of the Graduate Records Examination Program, Educational Testing Service *THOMAS E. MALONE, Vice President for Biomedical Research, Association of American Medical Colleges
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? *CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin MARSHA LAKES MATYAS, Director of Women's Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science GIAN-CARLO ROTA, Professor of Applied Mathematics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GARRISON SPOSITO, Professor of Soil Physical Chemistry, University of California—Berkeley KAREN K. UHLENBECK, Professor of Mathematics, University of Texas—Austin Staff Officer: Linda Skidmore Dix Project Assistant/Senior Secretary: Gaelyn Davidson * Member through February 29, 1992. AD HOC PANEL ON INTERVENTIONS MILDRED S. DRESSELHAUS, Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair ESTHER M. CONWELL, Research Fellow, Xerox Corporation, Vice Chair GEORGE CAMPBELL, JR., President, National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering BRUCE ANDREW FOWLER, Director of the Toxicology Program, University of Maryland Medical School MARSHA LAKES MATYAS, Director of Women's Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science GARRISON SPOSITO, Professor of Soil Physical Chemistry, University of California—Berkeley
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON STUDIES AND ANALYSES LINDA S. WILSON, President, Radcliffe College, Chair JOHN PATRICK CRECINE, President, Georgia Institute of Technology LESTER A. HOEL, Hamilton Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia ERNEST JAWORSKI, Distinguished Science Fellow, Monsanto Company DANIEL KLEPPNER, Professor, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN S. RABSON, Director, Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis, National Institutes of Health BRUCE SMITH, Senior Staff, Center for Public Policy Education, The Brookings Institution Ex Officio WILLIAM H. MILLER, Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of California—Berkeley Executive Director: Alan Fechter Director of Studies and Surveys Unit: Pamela Ebert Flattau
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) is a continuing committee within the National Research Council's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. The goal of the Committee is to increase the participation of women in science and engineering by convening meetings, conducting research, and disseminating data about the status of women in these fields. The Committee's core activities are funded by a consortium of federal and private organizations. For their roles in securing contributions of partial funding for the core activities of the Committee, their sharing with the Committee the concerns of their organizations relevant to the Committee's mandate, and their participation in the Committee's deliberations about topics that it might examine in order to address the underparticipation of women in science and engineering, we are grateful to the following sponsor representatives: Bruce Guile, National Academy of Engineering; Harriet Zuckerman, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation; Charles R. Bowen, International Business Machines Corporation; Mark Myers, Xerox Corporation; Burton H. Colvin, National Institute for Standards and Technology; Marguerite Hays, Department of Veterans Affairs; Margrete S. Klein, National Science Foundation (NSF); Sherri McGee, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Sheila Rosenthal, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; and Ruth Ann Verell, U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Research. In addition, we acknowledge the input of Richard Stephens, DOE, and Margaret Finarelli and Frank Owens, NASA, during the initial discussions about the roles of the Committee and federal agencies in increasing the participation of women in science and engineering. Finally, we recognize the financial support given by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, through the direction of program officer Harry Weiner, specifically for the holding of the Conference on Science and Engineering Programs. The Committee is pleased to include within the various chapters of this report information conveyed by individuals knowledgeable of the issues and strategies for addressing them: Linda S. Wilson, Elizabeth Stage, Marsha Lakes Matyas, Joan Sherry, Garrison Sposito, Esther M. Conwell, Linda Skidmore Dix, and Mildred S. Dresselhaus. These authors relied not only on their own knowledge of the issues, but also on the presentations of several experts who are listed in Appendix B of this report.
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? The Committee is indebted to several staff of the National Research Council's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Alan Fechter, executive director, offered valuable advice during the planning of the conference. Pamela Ebert Flattau, director of studies and surveys, helped to structure both the conference agenda and the format of this report. Gaelyn Davidson, project assistant for CWSE, handled conference logistics and all word processing for this report. Assisting with the development of graphics was Valerie Andrewlevich, senior secretary. Throughout this project—from initial planning of the conference through dissemination of this report—activities have been coordinated by the CWSE study director, Linda Skidmore Dix. Finally, we acknowledge the special efforts of three individuals: Marsha Lakes Matyas and Linda Skidmore Dix, who devoted much time editing the manuscripts during the first six months of 1992, and Mildred S. Dresselhaus, CWSE chair whose oversight for this work led her to carry the manuscript halfway around the world. The Committee appreciates their efforts to compile information from a variety of sources that would present an overview of the current knowledge about postsecondary S&E interventions in place on university campuses and in the work setting.
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? FOREWORD The fraction of working women participating in the scientific and engineering work force is smaller than that of men. However, as the need for scientists and engineers increases for the U.S. R&D enterprise, women should find greater opportunities to pursue careers in these fields. Nonetheless, to increase women's participation in science and engineering, many barriers must be overcome. The National Research Council's Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) has several important roles related to these challenges. One of these roles is to inform both the science and engineering community and the public of the need to increase the participation of women in scientific and engineering careers—to increase not only economic competitiveness but also educational and occupational equity. Another is to collect and disseminate information on programs designed to address that need. To meet these mandates, in November 1991 the Committee held a Conference on Science and Engineering Programs, with three objectives: To examine a sample of interventions from the wide spectrum known to have been established in the private and public sectors with the objective of increasing the participation of U.S. citizens, both men and women, in science and engineering careers; To determine the characteristics shared by programs considered to meet that objective; and To discuss methods of implementing such programs on a broader scale. The conference was an important activity of the Committee in several ways. First, it brought together both initiators and administrators of interventions, as well as funders of those that have seemed effective—as measured by whether participants actually completed science or engineering (S&E) degrees or obtained employment in an S&E field. Second, it introduced those newly interested in the issue of women's underparticipation in science and engineering to those who have been working to address this situation for some time. Finally, it heightened awareness of what universities, corporations, foundations, and other groups are doing to increase the quantity and quality of U.S. students pursuing careers in the sciences and engineering.
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? The result of the conference is this report, which summarizes presentations by many experts in this area and presents information on specific strategies for increasing the participation of women in science and engineering—at the undergraduate and graduate levels of study and in all employment sectors. This document also incorporates the more informal deliberations at the conference. This report is unusual in that its chapters were authored by individuals, not by the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE). While the views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of the National Research Council, its Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP), or CWSE, the Committee believes that the chapters accurately reflect discussions at the Committee-sponsored conference. The report has benefitted in its writing from the experience and expertise of the chapter authors. Those expected to benefit from the contents of this document include the broad community of policy makers, educators, employers, researchers, and scientists and engineers themselves. Specifically, it is envisioned that members of the following groups will find the information contained herein useful: women S&E undergraduate and graduate students; women scientists and engineers employed in academe, companies, and federal agencies; undergraduate and graduate deans; and CEOs/VPs for human resources in U.S. companies. The Committee hopes that both conference participants and those unable to participate in the conference will find the report helpful as they work to increase the quantity and improve the quality of U.S. students, particularly women and members of racial/ethnic minority groups, pursuing careers in science and engineering. Linda S. Wilson Chair Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? PREFACE From its initial meeting in 1991, the National Research Council's Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) has expressed concern about the decreasing numbers (and percentages) of U.S. citizens receiving degrees at all levels in science and engineering. Data from the surveys of incoming college and university freshmen conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute and from the National Science Foundation's Surveys of Science, Social Science, and Engineering Graduates indicated that increasing numbers of U.S. students initially expressing interest in science and engineering (S&E) careers switch out of S&E study as undergraduates or after having obtained baccalaureates in science or engineering. This phenomenon of ''field switching'' led the Committee, in turn, to take an interest in the "supply and demand issue," namely whether the supply of U.S.-citizen scientists and engineers would be sufficient to meet the demands for highly skilled personnel posed by U.S. companies, educational institutions, and the government. While the "supply and demand issue" is open to debate, the Committee believes that changing U.S. demography serves to intensify the debate. Traditionally, scientists and engineers in the United States have been white males; and we know that, during the next decade in particular, the percentage of white males reflected in the net new entrants to the work force will be decidedly smaller than in the past. Thus, there is an important opportunity to meet the nation's needs for scientists and engineers by increasing the numbers of women and minorities receiving advanced preparation in those fields. When considering the many possible topics for its first conference, CWSE identified a significant gap in our knowledge concerning the utilization of interventions for women in science and engineering: although much research has been conducted on these interventions, the knowledge gained from those programs has never been consolidated to give a clear picture of what strategies are effective, particularly at the postsecondary and employment levels. The Committee determined, therefore, that an examination of post-secondary programs designed to recruit and retain U.S. citizens in science and engineering was warranted and decided to focus on those targeted to women. Prior to holding the conference, "Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women?," Committee staff canvassed various organizations to
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? determine the nature and range of interventions and relied on a variety of sources to gather information about them. Individuals, notified of the Committee's interest in S&E interventions and plans to sponsor a conference on this topic, were asked to provide basic information about specific program(s) with which they were familiar. Those responding to the Committee's request for information, as well as others in the research and funding communities, were asked to share, at the conference, information regarding the spectrum of postsecondary programs supported by the federal government and the private sector, components of successful recruitment and retention programs, and models for programs that might be adopted by other organizations. Because of widespread evidence about national involvement in programs at the precollege level, the Committee decided to make the subject of the conference "postsecondary programs." Programs highlighted at the conference were selected in terms of their effectiveness in meeting program objectives, as reported by groups such as the White House Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. This report, a combination of authored papers and distillation of the issues discussed at the conference, has been designed to (1) heighten public awareness of activities that address the underutilization of a major component of this country's S&E talent pool and (2) disseminate information to those interested in achieving increased participation of women in S&E careers, particularly people who want to implement interventions but have limited funds to do so. This report has two major features: (1) descriptions of the components of effective postsecondary programs at each education level and in each employment sector and (2) a listing of effective programs whose administrators are willing to serve as resources for those wishing to establish interventions at their institutions or to upgrade programs already in operation. The plenary presentations by Linda Wilson and Elizabeth Stage at the conference (see Chapters 1 and 2) set the tone for both the conference and this report: to establish goals for the scientific and engineering community; to take a careful look at those strategies that work; to approach the topic of interventions as a research problem with defined theories, where programs and theories need to be subjected to thorough evaluation; and to maximize the resources available for interventions by establishing extensive and effective communications networks among all those involved. In Chapter 3, Marsha
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? Lakes Matyas presents data that assess the current status of women in post-secondary levels of S&E education and employment. The subsequent panels, formal and informal discussions, and conversations-in-the-hall during the conference yielded a wealth of information. Chapters 4–8 summarize much of this information and convey the conclusions and recommendations made by the conference participants. Each of the individually authored chapters presents information on specific programs designed to improve the current situation for women in science and engineering. Each chapter then concludes with suggestions for future initiatives in addressing the underparticipation of women in careers in the sciences and engineering. Those suggestions, summarized below, do not reflect an in-depth examination of S&E interventions by the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering but, rather, the belief of the Committee that these suggestions are representative of those made by participants at the Committee-sponsored conference. Undergraduate Initiatives The conference discussions and a number of recent reports recommend initiatives for increasing the participation of women in science and engineering at the undergraduate level: Higher education institutions should monitor student progress to assess where "losses" of S&E students, especially women and minorities, occur. Specific funding sources should be targeted at women. Comprehensive interventions should be targeted toward women and implemented in diverse institutions. The research base on interventions for women in science and engineering at the undergraduate level should be expanded by funding longitudinal evaluations of selected programs. New models should be developed, evaluated, revised, and disseminated for involving faculty members in strategies to increase the participation of undergraduate women in science and engineering. Graduate and Postdoctoral Initiatives Future directions for interventions in the graduate education of women in science and engineering are suggested in Chapter 5:
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? "Confidence building" techniques should be developed so that women graduate students gain both scientific expertise and effective communication skills that will permit them to go forward in careers in science and mathematics with a high degree of comfort and confidence. To retain graduate students in the sciences and engineering, departments and institutions must develop programs of positive incentives for faculty. The "level playing field" concept for women graduate students must be articulately and concretely demonstrated by upper management of the academic institution. At all levels—institution, department, and individual mentor—sensitivity, flexibility, and understanding of child bearing/rearing issues must be demonstrated to avoid discouragement and loss of talented female graduate students from these fields into others where time for a family is more easily managed. Resolving issues related to balancing family and scientific career goals for women graduate students must be a high priority for any academic institution. Interventions To Recruit and Retain Women Science and Engineering Faculty Given the paucity of major interventions to promote the careers of women scientists and engineers in academe, the Irvine conference discussion focused on strategies to develop such programs. Following are four broad strategies that Garrison Sposito proposes in Chapter 6 for implementation by universities: Establish an Office on the Status of Women Faculty Members, whose director is a senior female professor with line responsibility to the chief administrative officer of the campus. Revise the tenure process on campus to ensure that untenured women faculty members are indeed reviewed by their peers during the probationary period and that every tenure-review committee has at least one female member. Create a family-friendly workplace environment by establishing flexible work schedules, job sharing, and subsidized, proximate child care as standard features of campus programs for the faculty.
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? Allow maximum flexibility in working conditions consistent with carrying out responsibilities of teaching and research. Interventions To Recruit and Retain Women Scientists and Engineers in Industry To achieve women's participation in industrial employment comparable to that in the academic and government sectors requires a directed program of strategic and sustained activities developed jointly by women scientists and engineers and the companies for which they work: Women should be given incentives to seek employment in industry in greater numbers than at present. Women should band together within companies in order to improve skills and performance levels throughout their group, and to overcome some of the built-in organizational barriers to learning and promotion. Companies should allow maximum flexibility in working conditions consistent with getting the job done well. To increase the number of women gaining industrial employment in science and engineering, companies should expand the universe from which they recruit entry-level employees. Interventions of the Federal Government To Recruit and Retain Women Scientists and Engineers The National Research Council's Committee on Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government examined recruitment, retention, and utilization issues and noted two that require further research: "what can be done to enhance federal recruitment of scientists and engineers, especially women and minorities at the entry level, and retention of all scientists and engineers at the midcareer level," and "what institutional decision-making process should be altered and in what way."* Specifically, * Alan K. Campbell and Linda S. Dix (eds.), Recruitment, Retention, and Utilization of Federal Scientists and Engineers (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990).
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? The federal government and individual agencies should assess what else can be done and develop interventions for both women and men. The federal government should consider programs targeting women S&E employees, similar to those existing in the private sector. In particular, the "glass-cutter" program designed by conference participants would be an appropriate starting point for federal agencies to address the issue of increasing their employment of women scientists and engineers. The particular goals of the Conference on Science and Engineering Programs were to review some programs deemed effective because of their ability to assist program participants in achieving degrees in science and engineering and to try to determine what elements of those programs enhance both education and careers in science and engineering for women. Throughout the conference, consideration was given to how to make best use of human resources and financial resources to widen the pipeline in a constructive way with a long-term impact. Some actions necessary for establishing and maintaining S&E intervention are discussed in the last chapter of this report. Finally, the material in the appendixes may be particularly useful to those interested in establishing contact with administrators for a variety of S&E programs at the postsecondary level. In Appendix A one may find key information about a variety of programs; the reader is cautioned, however, that these tables provide information about a representative sample and are not inclusive of all programs targeted to potential scientists and engineers. The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering made no attempt to ascertain the effectiveness of current programs. In part, this decision was made in consideration of the fact that many interventions have not been evaluated to determine the extent to which programmatic goals have been achieved. Thus, one action that is recommended is the inclusion of an evaluation component within all S&E interventions in the future. This report provides the first step in developing the conceptual framework that is needed to conduct formal evaluative work. Mildred S. Dresselhaus Chair Committee on Women in Science and Engineering
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? CONTENTS 1 The Benefits of Diversity in the Science and Engineering Work Force by Linda S. Wilson 1 2 Interventions Defined, Implemented, and Evaluated by Elizabeth Stage 15 3 Overview: The Status of Women in Science and Engineering by Marsha Lakes Matyas 27 EDUCATION 41 4 Promoting Undergraduate Studies in Science and Engineering by Marsha Lakes Matyas 43 5 Promoting Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in Science and Engineering by Joan Sherry and Linda Skidmore Dix 67 EMPLOYMENT 99 6 Promoting Science and Engineering Careers in Academe by Garrison Sposito 101 7 Promoting Science and Engineering Careers in Industry by Esther M. Conwell 119 8 Promoting Science and Engineering Careers in the Federal Government by Linda Skidmore Dix 141 SUMMARY: CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES by Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Linda Skidmore Dix 161
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? APPENDIXES 171 A Related Tables 173 B Speakers and Participants, Conference on Science and Engineering Programs, Irvine, California, November 4–5, 1991 207 LIST OF TABLES 3-1 Intended Majors of High-Achieving Black and White High-School Seniors, 1990, by Sex (in percent) 28 3-2 Student Perceptions of Problems in Undergraduate Teaching Methods, by Sex (in percent) 29 3-3 Doctoral Degrees Awarded to Women, by Field, 1990 31 3-4 Employed Women Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Educational Institutions, by Field, 1987 34 3-5 Employed Women Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in Industrial/Self-Employed Positions, 1989 35 3-6 Management/Supervisory Status of Federal Scientists and Engineers, by Sex, 1987 37 4-1 Precollege Intervention Target Groups and Program Models 46 4-2 Attitudes and Behaviors Affected by Precollege Program Activities 47 4-3 Types of Undergraduate Intervention Programs 49 4-4 Components of a Campus-Wide coordination of Intervention Efforts 57 5-1 Median Years to Degree for Doctorate Recipients, by Demographic Group and Broad Field, 1990 69 5-2 Numbers of Students Holding GEM Fellowships, 1991 81 5-3 Participation in the Ford Foundation Predoctoral and Dissertation Fellowships for Minorities Program, FY 1992, by Sex 82 5-4 Participation in the Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowships for Minorities Program, FY 1992, by Sex 83 5-5 Participation, by Sex, in the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Predoctoral. Fellowship Program in the Biological Sciences, FY 1988–1992 84 5-6 NSF Graduate Fellowship Program Applications and Awards, by Sex, 1985 and 1992 88 5-7 NSF Minority Graduate Fellowship Program Applications and Awards, by Sex, 1985 and 1990 90
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? 5-8 Applications and Awards to Women in NIST/NRC Postdoctoral Research Associateships Program, 1987–1991 92 6-1 Summary Features of Some Targeted Intervention Programs Designed To Enhance Career Opportunities in Science and Engineering 108 8-1 Factors Affecting Recruitment and Retention of Scientists and Engineers by Federal Agencies and Their Possible Solutions 142 8-2 Federal Career Fairs, 1990–1991 145 8-3 Some Programs To Provide Job-Related Training for Employees of the U.S. Department of Defense 153 8-4 Percentage of Women at GS-5, 14, and 15 in Selected Scientific Occupations, 1991 155 LIST OF FIGURES 4-1 Bachelor's degrees awarded in science and engineering, 1980 and 1989, by sex, 44 4-2 Model for the evolution of intervention programs, 56 4-3 Percentage of colleges/universities offering women in engineering programs, 1987, 61 5-1 Women as a percentage of graduate enrollment, by science and engineering field, 1988 and 1990, 68 5-2 Mean time to doctoral degree, University of California-Berkeley, 1986–1991, by sex, 76 5-3 Doctoral completion rates, University of California-Berkeley, 1978–79 cohort, by sex, 77 5-4 Number of new awards, NRC Postdoctoral Research Associateship Program, 1979–1991, by Sex, 91 5-5 Percentage of advanced degrees in science and engineering granted to women, by field, 1990, 96 6-1 Doctoral scientists and engineers in 4-year colleges and universities, by tenure status, academic rank, and sex, 1987, 102 6-2 Percentage of women science and engineering faculty at U.S. institutions, 1987, 104 7-1 Percentage of industrially employed women scientists and engineers, by field and selected primary work activity, 1986, 120 7-2 Distribution of employed doctoral scientists and engineers, by field and sex, 1989, 121
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? 7-3 Science and engineering unemployment rates of men and women, by field, 1986, 122 7-4 Women's salaries as a percentage of men's salaries, by field, 1986, 123 7-5 Attrition rates at Corning Corporation, 1987–1991, by sex, 128 8-1 Distribution of work force in key jobs for 25 executive agencies, by grade, as of September 30, 1990, 144
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Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROGRAMS
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