Chapel Hill. Prior to moving to UNC, Dr. Thorpe was Director of the Program on Health Care Financing and Insurance at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Thorpe received his Ph.D. in policy analysis at the Rand Graduate School. During the past five years, Dr. Thorpe has served as an adviser to the Pepper Commission, the Advisory Council on Social Security, the National Leadership Coalition for Health Care Reform, and the New York State Department of Health and was a gubernatorial appointee to Massachusetts' Universal Health Care Commission. He has written dozens of articles on health care financing issues and is co-author of Competition and Compassion, Conflicting Roles for Public Hospitals. Dr. Thorpe is currently completing work on examining the medical malpractice system and is engaged in ongoing efforts with state and national groups in developing national health policy proposals and legislation.

JOAN B. TRAUNER, Ph.D., is an Executive Consultant at Coopers & Lybrand in Actuarial, Benefits and Compensation Consulting Group in San Francisco. Prior to this position, she was a Principal in the San Francisco office, with national responsibility for Governmental Programs and Managed Care. She is also an Assistant Adjunct Professor of Health Policy at the Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California San Francisco, where she served previously as a full-time health services researcher from 1979-1986. Dr. Trauner currently serves on the Health Benefits Advisory Committee to the California Public Employees' Retirement System and has recently completed services on the Health Insurance Reform Taskforce within the California Department of Insurance. She is also a technical advisor to the state of Hawaii, having been responsible for the design of Hawaii's State Health Insurance Program for the uninsured. Dr. Trauner regularly advises large payers, including HMOs, insurers, and state governments about the design and operations of managed care programs. She is the author of a paper on utilization management that appeared in the 1989 publication by the IOM Committee on Utilization Management by Third Parties.

GAIL L. WARDEN is president and chief executive officer of Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, a vertically integrated regional health care system. The system includes a tertiary care hospital, two community hospitals, 35 ambulatory care centers in four Michigan counties, a 900-member physician medical group, a 410,000-member health maintenance organization, and other programs and services. Before joining Henry Ford Health System, Warden was president and chief executive officer of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound in Seattle, executive vice president of the American Hospital Association, and executive vice president and chief operations officer of Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center.

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