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6 Vigilance and Target Detection As noted in Chapter 1, a large portion of the responsibility of armored vehicle teams, and indeed the teams of many analogous systems, prior to transition is simply to monitor the environment for events that might signal the need for the team to mobilize into action. This task of monitoring for infrequent signals is one for which humans are not well suited, particularly after periods of sleep disruption. In this chapter we examine in detail the research on human performance in monitoring, vigilance, and target detec- tion. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND World War II Vigilance or sustained attention refers to the ability of observers to maintain their focus of attention and to remain alert to stimuli for prolonged periods of time (Davies and Parasuraman, 1982; Warm, 1984a). Systematic study of sustained attention began during World War II. It was stimulated by surprising fallibility in the performance of British airborne radar observ- ers while on patrol for enemy submarines. These individuals were often required to maintain continuous observation of their radar scopes during long flights over the Bay of Biscay watching for telltale "blips" that sig- naled the presence of German U-boats in the sea below. Despite their extensive training and obvious motivation to perform well, the observers failed with increasing frequency to notice the critical signals displayed by 139
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140 WORKLOAD TRANSITION their equipment as time on watch progressed. As a result, the submarines passed undetected and were free to prey on Allied shipping. In response to a request from the Royal Air Force to study the problem, Mackworth (1948, 1961) initiated a series of ingenious experiments that formed the first systematic effort to bring the study of vigilance into the laboratory. Using a simulated radar display known as the "Clock Test," Mackworth was able to chart the course of performance over time and to confirm the suspicions generated in the field that the quality of sustained attention is fragile: it wanes over time. He found that his subjects became progressively more inefficient at detecting signals as the watch continued, and that this inefficiency did not take long to develop. In general, the accuracy of signal detections declined about 10 percent after only 30 min- utes of watch, and then showed a more gradual decline during the remainder of the 2-hour session. The progressive decline in performance over time noted in Mackworth's pioneering experiments has been confirmed in a large number of subsequent investigations. It has been labeled the "decrement function" or the "vigi- lance decrement" and is the most ubiquitous finding in vigilance studies. Many investigations using a broad assortment of vigilance tasks indicate that the decline in performance is complete from 20 to 35 minutes after the initiation of the vigil and at least half of the final loss is completed within the first 15 minutes (Teichner, 1974~. Under especially demanding circum- stances, the decrement can even appear within the very first few minutes of watch (Jerison, 1963; Nuechterlein et al., 1983~. As Dember and Warm (1979) have noted, the most striking aspect of this finding is that it seems to result merely from the necessity of looking or listening for a relatively infrequent signal over a continuous period of time. Implications of Automation for Vigilance The study of vigilance has generated considerable interest among hu- man factors and ergonomics specialists, who are concerned not only with the decrement function, but also with the factors that affect the overall level of performance. Comprehensive reviews of the extensive experimental lit- erature on vigilant behavior can be found in Craig (1985a, 1985b, 1991), Davies (1985), Davies and Parasuraman (1982), Dember and Warm (1979), Parasuraman (1986), Warm (1977, 1984b), Warm and Berch (1985) and Warm and Parasuraman ~ 1987~. The importance of vigilance research for human factors concerns is based in part on the fact that the surveillance problems encountered during World War II are still with us in one form or another. The generation of automatic control and computing systems for the acquisition, storage, and processing of information has altered the role of the human operator from
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VIGILANCE AND TARGET DETECTION 141 that of active controller to a more executive function, a development that Sheridan (1970) has characterized as a shift from active to supervisory control. Vigilance is a crucial aspect of the reliability of human performance in a wide variety of activities including industrial quality control, robotic manufacturing, air traffic control, nuclear power plant operations, long dis- tance driving, and the monitoring of life signs in medical settings (Warm, 1984a). As Parasuraman (1986) has noted, target detection in today's highly automated systems may be executed by instruments and controls, but the same problems of vigilance occur when the systems malfunction or unusual events appear. In some cases, the vigilance functions demanded of the operator can be overwhelming (Parasuraman, 1987; Wiener, 1984, 1985, 1987~. Implications for Armor Personnel Modern tank warfare is still another situation in which vigilant behav- ior is critical. Indeed, the maintenance of a proper level of alertness is the price of survival in combat. As described in Armor Field Manual 17-12-1, Tank Combat Table (U.S. Department of the Army, undated), future battle- fields are expected to require tank crews to move and engage rapidly under conditions in which our forces are intermingled with those of the enemy. Survival will depend on the crew's ability to detect and locate opposing forces rapidly in order to maintain the advantage of a first strike. Target acquisition, however, can be a difficult task for all crew members, espe- cially the gunner. Toward that end, they must search both ground and sky, looking and listening for target signatures (critical signals) involving acous- tic and visual patterns (engine noise, aircraft noise, broken vegetation, weapon smoke, glare from airplane canopies or wings), using just their eyes and ears or with the assistance of field glasses, telescopes, and thermal imagery. All of this must be accomplished under extreme conditions of heat, noise, vibration, and danger. In order to provide some insight into factors that might affect the vigilant behavior of armor crews and ways to counter threats to their ability to remain alert, this chapter describes a variety of task and environmental factors that have been discovered to play an important role in the quality of vigilance performance. PSYCHOPHYSICAL DETERMINANTS A Functional Equation The Components of Vigilance Performance efficiency in vigilance tasks is closely tied to the nature of the stimuli that demand attention. Consequently, the study of vigilance,
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42 WORKLOAD TRANSITION like that of other perceptual phenomena, has profited from the precise deter- mination of the stimulus conditions that influence performance. In summa- rizing these conditions, it is helpful to follow the framework of an empiri- cally determined functional equation developed by Jerison (1959b) and modified by Warm and Berch (1985), which takes the following form: P=f(M,S, U,B,C) According to this relation, performance (P) is a function of the sensory modality of signals (M), the salience of signals (S), stimulus uncertainty (U), the characteristics of the background of nonsignal events in which critical signals for detection are embedded (B), and task complexity (C). Signal Modality Vigilance experiments have used auditory, visual, and cutaneous stimu- lation. However, the sensory modality of signals is not a matter of indiffer- ence when the quality of sustained attention is concerned. Auditory tasks tend to be associated with a higher level of overall efficiency and with greater stability over time than their cutaneous and visual analogs (Davies and Parasuraman, 1982; Warm and Jerison, 1984~. In addition, intersensory correlations are often low or nonsignificant (Hatfield and Loeb, 1968~. Fortunately, techniques are available that can enhance visual perfor- mance and improve intersensory correlations in vigilance. The level of visual vigilance can be elevated to that characteristic of audition by closely coupling subjects to the display so that they cannot avoid stimulation by looking away (Hatfield and Loeb, 1968), and audiovisual correlations can be increased by equating the types of discriminations required in the two modalities (Galinsky et al., 1990; Hatfield and Loeb, 1968; Parasuraman and Davies, 1977~. Performance with redundant displays in which analo- gous signals are presented simultaneously to the auditory and visual chan- nels exceeds that with single-mode displays. The dual-mode superiority effect has been shown to stem from the integrative action of the sensory systems and not from a fortuitous combination of their independent activi- ties (Craig et al., 1976; Doll and Hanna, 1989~. It represents a potentially important technique for the general enhancement of monitoring efficiency. Signal Salience A common finding in studies of target detection under alerted condi- tions is that the frequency of detection is positively related to stimulus amplitude and duration. These factors are also important under conditions of sustained attention. Investigations by Adams (1956), Guralnick (1972), and Loeb and Binford (1963) have demonstrated that the overall quality of sustained attention can be enhanced and performance rendered more stable
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VIGILANCE AND TARGET DETECTION 143 over time by increasing the amplitude of the signal-to-noise ratio of critical signals. In addition, Corcoran and his coworkers (Corcoran et al., 1977) have shown that it is also possible to reverse the typical time course of performance by "turning up the gain" on the sensory channel being moni- tored. Using acoustic pulses, they found that an abrupt increment in the amplitude of the stimuli midway through the vigil bolstered the frequency of signal detections for the remainder of the session. In addition to ampli- tude increments, signals can also be rendered more salient by increasing their duration. Signals of brief duration are more likely to be missed than those that remain visible for longer periods of time. Indeed, the rate of gain in detection efficiency is a negatively accelerated increasing function of duration up to a limit of about four seconds (Warm et al., 1970~. Stimulus Uncertainty Alluisi (1966) has pointed out that, like lookouts in old-time sailing ships, subjects in vigilance experiments can be faced with considerable uncertainty regarding the signals they are to detect they may not know when such signals will appear (temporal uncertainty) or where they will appear (spatial uncertainty). The same can be said for armor personnel in combat. Both types of uncertainty degrade performance efficiency. One means of manipulating the subject's temporal uncertainty is through variations in the density or the number of critical signals presented during a vigilance session. The more frequently such signals occur within a fixed time period, the greater the a priori signal probability and the lower will be the subject's average uncertainty as to when critical signals will occur. The accuracy of signal detections varies directly as a function of signal density (Warm and Jerison, 1984~. Increases in signal density also increase the speed of detection in a regular manner. Using an information theory analy- sis to measure the density-determined temporal uncertainty in the appear- ance of critical signals, Alluisi and his coworkers (Smith et al., 1966; Warm and Alluisi, 1971) found that response times to detections increased as a linear function of uncertainty. An important aspect of the effects of signal probability in vigilance performance is that these effects perseverate. Several studies have demon- strated that subjects trained initially under conditions of high signal prob- ability do better during subsequent testing than do those initially exposed to a low probability, regardless of the probability condition in effect (high or low) during the testing phase of the experiment (Colquhoun and Baddeley, 1964, 1967; Griffin et al., 1986; Krulewitz and Warm, 1977; McFarland and Halcomb, 1970~. Temporal uncertainty in vigilance experiments has also been manipu- lated through variations in the intervals of time between signals or the
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44 WORKLOAD TRANSITION intersignal intervals. These intervals can be made quite regular and easily predictable or irregular and unpredictable. The speed and accuracy with which signal detections occur is greater in the context of regular compared with irregular signal conditions (Adams and Boulter, 1964; Warm et al., 1974~. Spatial uncertainty has been introduced into vigilance experiments by varying the probability that signals will appear in different locations of a monitored display or by using an unpredictable sequence of display loca- tions. Under such conditions, performance efficiency is lowered and sub- jects tend to bias their attention toward those portions of the display in which the likelihood of signal appearance is highest (Adams and Boulter, 1964; Joshi et al., 1985; Milosevic, 1974; Nicely and Miller, 19574. The Background Event Context Vigilance experiments frequently employ dynamic displays in which critical signals for detection are embedded within a matrix of recurrent background events. For example, subjects may be asked to detect occa- sional brighter flashes of light in a background of dimmer flashes or the presence of a stronger pulse of acoustic stimulation in a background of less intense pulses. Although the background events may be neutral in the sense that they require no overt response, they are far from neutral in their influ- ence on the quality of sustained attention. The frequency of background events, or the background event rate, is a very important determinant of performance efficiency. Both the speed and the accuracy of signal detec- tions vary inversely with event rate, and the vigilance decrement tends to be more pronounced in the context of a fast compared with a slow event rate (Jerison and Pickett, 1964; Lanzetta et al., 1987; Parasuraman, 1979; Parasuraman and Davies, 1976~. From the earlier discussion of signal density, one might be tempted to conclude that the effects of event rate are artifactual. If critical signal density is held constant, as is usually the case when event rate is varied, increases in event rate reduce the conditional probability that a stimulus event is a critical signal. Thus, event rate may simply be another example of signal uncertainty. This is not the case, however. The quality of sus- tained attention decreases with increased event rate even when signal den- sity is adjusted so that the conditional probability is equated within event rates (Loeb and Binford, 1968; Parasuraman, 1979; Taub and Osborne, 1968~. In addition to its own influence on performance, the background event rate also modifies that of other stimulus parameters. The effects associated with signal amplitude and signal regularity as well as the perseverative effects of signal density are dependent on the event rate context in which critical signals must be detected (Krulewitz and Warm, 1977; Metzger et al.,
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VIGILANCE AND TARGET DETECTION 145 1974; Moore and Gross, 19739. Moreover, the speed of probe detections for a secondary task also depends on the event rate in force in a primary vigi- lance task (Bowers, 1983; Parasuraman, 1985~. Taken together, findings such as these have led several investigators to conclude that background event rate is probably the prepotent psychophysical factor in vigilance per- formance (Parasuraman et al., 19871. For the most part, neutral events in vigilance experiments have been presented in temporally regular intervals, such as 1 event every 12 seconds at an event rate of 5 per minute or 1 event every 2 seconds at a faster rate of 30 per minute. Under such conditions, subjects can predict when an event that needs to be inspected for the possibility that it is a critical signal will appear. Accordingly, they can take task-contingent timeouts and rest be- tween the appearance of events. Recent studies by Scerbo and his col- leagues have denied subjects such rest intervals by using temporally irregu- lar or asynchronous event schedules so that subjects could not be certain when an event that could be a signal would appear and had to observe the vigilance display continuously. As might be anticipated, event asynchrony degrades performance efficiency compared with a synchronous schedule of background events (Scerbo et al., 1987a, 1987b). The effects of both event rate and event asynchrony are striking; they demonstrate that signal detec- tion in vigilance experiments is determined as much by what transpires in the interim between signals as by the characteristics of the signals them- selves. Stimulus Complexity Vigilance studies typically make use of relatively simple perceptual discriminations involving the detection of discrete changes in the intensity, extensity, duration, or movement of stimuli on a single display (see Hancock, 1984, for a description of the kinds of displays used). In operational set- tings, however, more complex discriminations are often involved and ob- servers may be required to cope with multiple signal sources. A number of attempts have been made to explore the consequences of increased task complexity for the quality of vigilant behavior, but the results are not clear cut. In a well known study, Jerison (1963) asked observers to monitor three displays simultaneously and found that the vigilance decrement was greatly enhanced under such conditions. Rather than appearing after the first 5 or 10 minutes of watch, he found that the decrement could be observed from the very first signal onward. In contrast, however, are several experiments by Adams and his associates (Adams and Humes, 1963; Adams et al., 1963; Montague et al., 1965) that employed very complex vigilance tasks with multiple stimulus sources (from 6 to 36) under conditions in which any one
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146 WORKLOAD TRANSITION source could present a signal at any moment in time. The vigilance decre- ment was either absent or minimal in these experiments even though the vigil lasted for several hours. However, the absolute level of vigilant per- formance (the number of signals missed) was far from perfect. Adams's findings have been confirmed recently by Warm and his collaborators who varied complexity by increasing the cognitive demand placed on observers in a vigilance task (Dember et al., 1984; Lysaght et al., 1984; Warm et al., 1984~. But Loeb and his coworkers have reported that the beneficial effects of increased cognitive demand are limited- increasing demand beyond a rather low optimal level degrades performance and restores the decrement function (Loeb et al., 1987~. The problem of stimulus complexity is perplexing. Depending on the approach employed, it is possible to amplify or eliminate the vigilance decrement through modifications of complexity. Clearly, a resolution of these disparities will be necessary in order to develop a complete functional equation for the psychophysics of vigilance. Some insight into ways in which this conundrum might be unraveled comes from a study by Fisk and Schneider (1981), who approached the issue of complexity in terms of auto- matic and controlled processing theory (see Schneider and Shiffrin, 1977~. According to this view, automatic processes are fast, fairly effortless, skilled behaviors while controlled processes refer to relatively slow, effortful, ca- pacity-limited processes. In a carefully conducted experiment in which automatic processing was developed over several hundred trials, Fisk and Schneider found that the vigilance decrement was restricted to controlled processing tasks; automatic tasks were performed in a stable manner throughout the vigilance session. Evidently, proper training might be a key in aiding subjects to cope with demanding vigilance tasks. Sensing and Decision Making The Theory of Signal Detection At first glance, a subject's success in correctly detecting a signal (a predesignated stimulus event) in vigilance or other detection situations may seem to be a rather direct measure of the individual's perceptual ability in that situation. However, if one examines the process of signal detection more carefully, it becomes evident that perceptual reports are not that simple (see Natsoulas, 1967~; the affirmation of signal presence or absence does not depend solely on perceptual sensitivity. Such a report is also contingent on nonperceptual factors that include the subject's detection goals, expecta- tions about the nature of the stimuli, and the anticipated consequences of correct and incorrect responses. Taken together, these factors compose the subject's response criterion or willingness to emit a detection response.
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VIGILANCE AND TARGET DETECTION 147 Failure to detect a signal can result from a lack of perceptual sensitivity for the signal or from a conservative criterion that leads the subject to withhold the detection response. The theory of signal detection is concerned with these aspects of per- formance. It is a major theory for the general study of perception and has been used widely in investigations of sustained attention. A detailed tuto- rial on the nature of this approach is beyond the scope of this chapter. Appropriate descriptions can be found in Dember and Warm (1979), Green and Swets (1974), and McNicol (1972~. For special sections on the applica- tion of signal detection theory to vigilance, see Davies and Parasuraman ( 1982) and Warm and Jerison ( 1984~. Applications to Vigilance In essence, signal detection theory makes use of the frequency of cor- rect detections (hits) and the frequency of false detections (false alarms), which also decline over time in vigilance studies, to derive two independent measures of performance: an index of perceptual sensitivity (d'), and an index of criterion in responding Gil. The former describes the keenness of the observer's senses: the ability to discriminate signals from nonsignals. The latter describes the observer's tendency to say "yes, I see a signal," thus possibly detecting more signals but also generating more false alarms. These measures have provided an important insight into the nature of the vigilance decrement. A substantial number of investigations have indi- cated that the decrement often does not involve a decline in alertness during a vigil (drop in d'). Instead, it reflects a shift to a more conservative response criterion (rise in p), perhaps because subjects develop more ratio- nal expectations of the actual signal probability in force with experience in the experiment (Davies and Parasuraman, 1982; Swets, 1977; Warm and Jerison, 1984; Williges, 1969~. True perceptual decrements seem to be restricted to extremely demanding situations with low levels of signal discriminability, which may be brought about by low signal-to-noise ratios, fast event rates, and memory demanding tasks (Parasuraman et al., 19873. Task Taxonomy A major feature of vigilance tasks is their diversity. As noted earlier, such tasks can be presented in different sensory modalities and utilize a variety of psychophysical dimensions to define critical signals for detec- tion. Davies and Parasuraman (1982) have argued, however, that there is an essential order to this diversity that can be made clear by appealing to a general view of attention known as resource theory. According to this position, the quality of performance in many situations is directly related to
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148 WORKLOAD TRANSITION the amount of mental resources or capacity invested in the task at hand (Gopher and Kimchi, 1989; Kantowitz, 1985; see also Chapters 3 and 49. With that notion in mind, Davies and Parasuraman have suggested a classi- fication system (taxonomy) in which vigilance tasks can be characterized as successive or simultaneous. The former are absolute judgment tasks in which subjects need to compare current input with a standard retained in working memory in order to separate signals and noise. Simultaneous tasks are comparative judgment tasks in which all of the information needed to distinguish signals from nonsignals is present in the stimuli themselves, and there is little involvement of recent memory for the signal feature. Davies and Parasuraman maintain that because of the memory imperative, succes- sive tasks are more resource demanding than their simultaneous cohorts A number of studies have supported this point of view. In so doing, they have adopted the strategy of comparing the effects of factors known to degrade the quality of sustained attention by increasing the subject's information processing load on the performance of successive and simultaneous tasks. If the former are more resource demanding than the latter, then any factor that places an additional drain on the subject's information processing re- sources should have a more pronounced effect on vigilance efficiency when presented within the context of a successive compared with a simultaneous task. Along these lines, the degrading effects of increments in event rate, event asynchrony, and the spatial uncertainty of signals have all been found to be more notable with successive than with simultaneous tasks (Josh) et al., 1985, Lanzetta et al., 1987; Scerbo et al., 1987a). ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS Environment and Task In addition to psychophysical factors, vigilance performance is influ- enced considerably by conditions in the ambient environment. These condi- tions are often teed environmental stressors. The concept of stress, which is discussed more fully in Chapter 4, is difficult to define, but for the purpose of this chapter, stress is considered to be any threat to the physical or psychological well-being of the organism (Wingate, 1972~. The discus- sion centers on the effects on vigilance of four basic stressors that are particularly likely to be a part of the combat environment of tanks: tem- perature, noise, vibration, and sleep loss. Temperature As in the case of the psychophysics of vigilance, Mackworth's seminal studies (1948, 1961) also provided the earliest data regarding the effects of
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VIGILANCE AND TARGET DETECTION 149 heat on performance efficiency. Using a range of effective temperatures from 21 to 36 degrees centigrade, he found an inverted U-shaped function between performance efficiency and the temperature of the testing chamber. Performance was maximal at about 26 degrees centigrade and was poorer at temperatures on either side of that point. Later studies have demonstrated that while performance may improve when subjects are first exposed to moderate levels of heat (Kerslake and Poulton, 1965), the quality of vigilant behavior is impaired with continued exposure to temperatures above 32 degrees centigrade. In these conditions the probability of signal detection declines, as does d', the sensitivity (Benor and Shvartz, 1971; Mackie and O'Hanlon, 1977; Pepler, 1953; Poulton and Edwards, 1974; Poulton et al., 1974). The effects of heat stress on vigilance performance have also been studied more directly in terms of body temperature itself. Bell and his colleagues have found that performance suffers with rising body tempera- ture (Bell et al., 1964), while other studies have reported that performance efficiency improves with elevations in body temperature (Colquhoun and Goldman, 1972; Wilkinson et al., 1964~. In an effort to account for this disparity, Hancock (1984) has noted that the subjects' body temperatures were rising during the vigilance session in the Bell et al. (1964) experiment, while in the other studies, subjects were established in a static hyperthermic state during the session. Hancock (1984, 1986) has suggested that the key to understanding the effects of thermal stress lies in the action of the stres- sor on deep body temperature. Vigilance performance breaks down with perturbations in core temperature, remains unaffected when there is no variation in that temperature, and can be facilitated when subjects are established in a static hyperthermic state. Only a few studies have examined the effects of cold on vigilance performance. Nevertheless, they suggest that, like exces- sive heat, cold also impairs the quality of sustained attention when deep body temperature is perturbed (Hancock, 1984, 1986~. Noise As described by Loeb (1986), noise, or unwanted sound, is the most ubiquitous pollutant in our industrialized society and a major environmental stressor. Accordingly, its effects have been studied extensively in a variety of situations, including those requiring sustained attention (Jones' 1983, 1984~. The effects of noise on vigilance performance are intricate and depend on many factors. Two of the more important are the type of noise involved, intermittent or continuous, and task complexity. Studies with intermittent noise have led to a plethora of conflicting results. In different circumstances, such noise can either enhance or de- grade vigilance performance or have no effect at all (Hancock, 1984; Koelega
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160 WORKLOAD TRANSITION coping with the vigilance challenges that confront them in combat situa- tions to advise them of such effects as the tendency of monitors to: (1) transfer signal probability estimates from one situation to another, (2) ig- nore low-probability areas under spatial uncertainty, (3) become more con- servative in responding over time, (4) ignore peripheral stimuli in noise, and (5) become more certain (perhaps unduly so) of signal and nonsignal decisions in noise. This training of operators to understand the biases and tendencies in their own performance has an analogy in decision making discussed in Chapter 8, wherein such debiasing procedures have proven successful. The most impressive testimonial for the potential benefits of training comes from Fisk and Schneider's (1981) finding that the decrement func- tion can be eliminated when vigilance tasks become automatic. Fisk and Scerbo (1987) provide several suggestions for how training should be car- ried out to maximize automatic processing development. Appropriate strat- egies for this type of training are discussed in Chapter 11. Fisk and Scerbo (1987) have also pointed out that training for automatic processing can make vigilance performance more resistant to the effects of environmental stress and increased mental workload, findings that add to the potential importance of a good training regimen and that fit well with Wilkinson's (1969) claim that familiarity with a task is a primary way to insulate perfor- mance against the effects of stress. As for stress itself, evidence is also available that indicates that training can have an important role in helping individuals to develop appropriate coping strategies (Hockey, 1986; see also Chapter 4~. REFERENCES Adams, J.A. 1956 Vigilance in the detection of low-intensity visual stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52:204-208. Adams, J.A., and L.R. Boulter 1964 Spatial and temporal uncertainty as determinants of vigilance performance. Jour- nal of Experimental Psychology 64:127-131. Adams, J.A., and J.M. Humes 1963 Monitoring of complex visual displays: Training for vigilance. Human Factors 5: 147-153. Adams, J.A., J.M Humes, and N.A. Sieveking 1963 Monitoring of complex visual displays. Effects of repeated sessions and heavy visual load on human vigilance. Human Factors 5:385-389. A]luisi, E.A. 1966 Attention and vigilance as mechanisms of response. Pp. 201-213 in E.A. Bilodeau, ea., Acquisition of Skill. New York: Academic Press. Anch, A.M., C.P. Brownian, M.M. Mitler, and J.K. Walsh 1988 Sleep: A Scientific Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
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VIGILANCE AND TARGET DETECTION Baker, R.A., I.W. Ware, and R.R. Sipowitz 161 1962 Signal detection by multiple monitors. Psychological Record 12:133-137. Bell, C.R., K.A. Provins, and R.W. Hiorns 1964 Visual and auditory vigilance during exposure to hot and humid conditions. Ergo- nomics 7:279-288. Benor, D., and E. Shvartz 1971 Effect on body cooling on vigilance in hot environments. Aerospace Medicine 42:727-730. Bergstrom, B., M. Gillsberg, and P. Arnberg 1973 Effects of sleep loss and stress on radar watching. Journal of Applied Psychology 58:158-162. Bergum, B.O., and D.J. Lehr 1962 Vigilance performance as a function of paired monitoring. Journal of Applied Psychology 46:341-343. Blackwell, PA., and J.A. Belt 1971 Effect of differential levels of ambient noise on vigilance performance. Percep- tual and Motor Skills 32:734. Bowers, J.C. 1983 Stimulus Homogeneity and the Event Rate Function in Sustained Attention. Doc- toral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Broadbent, D.E. 1954 Some effects of noise on visual performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 6:1-5. 1963 Differences and interactions between stresses. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 15:205-211. Broadbent, D.E., and M. Gregory 1965 Effects of noise and of signal rate upon vigilance analyzed by means of decision theory. Human Factors 7:155-162. Colquhoun, W.P., ed. 1972 Aspects of Human Efficiency: Diurnal Rhythm and Loss of Sleep. London, UK: English Universities Press. Colquhoun, W.P., and A.D. Baddeley 1964 Role of pretest expectancy in vigilance decrement. Journal of Experimental Psy- chology 68:156-160. Influence of signal probability during pretraining on vigilance decrement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):153-155. Colquhoun, W.P., and R.F. Goldman 1972 Vigilance under induced hyperthermia. Ergonomics 15:621-632. Corcoran, D.W.J., J. Mullin, M.T. Rainey, and G. Frith 1977 The effects of raised signal and noise amplitude during the course of vigilance tasks. Pp. 645-664 in R.R. Mackie, ea., Vigilance: Theory, Operational Perfor- mance and Physiolog~cal Correlates. New York: Plenum. 1967 Corso, J.F. 1967 The Experimental Psychology of Sensory Behav~or. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Craig, A. 1984 Human engineering: The control of vigilance. Pp. 247-291 in J.S. Warm, ea., Sustained Attention in Human Performance. Chichester, UK: Wiley. 1985a Field studies of human inspection: The application of vigilance research. Pp. 133-144 in S. Folkard and T.H. Monk, eds., Hours of Work: Temporal Factors in Work-Schedul~ng. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: