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Index A Action identification theory, 216-219 Activity switching, 10 Air crews, communications, 233-235 comparison with tank crews, 33, 171- 172, 183-189, 231-232 decision making, 198, 210 fatigue and, 151-152 naps on duty, 131 selection of members, 112, 114 Air traffic control, 13, 31, 33, 65, 94, 111-112, 141, 153 Aircraft, 99, 105, 229, 231 Alertness, 5, 14, 125, 147 Anchoring heuristic, 6, 201 Anxiety, effects on performance, 99, 102-104 Arousal, 100, 106- 107, 151, 220, 258 268 Attentional tunneling, 100-102, 105, 274 Automatic processing, 12, 75, 146, 160, 250, 274 Automation computer aiding and, 82-85 costs and benefits, 10, 242, 249 implications for vigilance, 140-141 leadership, crew coordination and, 239 workload and, 267 Availability heuristic, 6, 200-201, 205 B Biases confirmation bias, 6, 201, 207 decision making, 6, 102, 199-201, 207, 272 framing bias, 200, 204-205 geographic memory, 176- 179 salience bias, 6, 200 Boredom, 56, 64, 67, 86 C Change-task paradigm, 218-219 Choice, 202-205 Chunking, 78 Circadian rhythms body temperature cycle, 5, 124 job performance and, 33, 35, 51 277

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278 neurophysiologic basis of, 123- 124 variations in, 5, 122, 124, 129 Cockpit Management Attitudes Questionnaire (CMAQj, 111 Cognitive abilities performance, 5, 123-124 processes, 4, 57, 63 processing, 75, 79, 85 restructuring, 110 switching, 214-220 task management, 3 tunneling, 10, 100- 102 Combat readiness, 1, 14 Commercial aviation, 37, 232 Committee on Vision, 72 Communications computer-aided systems for, 83-84, 230-231 controls, 23 coordination and, 7-8, 16, 24, 31, 32 33, 51, 229-230, 258-261 decision making and, 207, 235, 272 effective, 114, 229, 268 flow, 33 protocol, 3, 37-38, 43, 51, 241 stress and, 10, 103, 114, 268 training and, 9, 250 voice, 60, 233-240 workload and, 12, 20, 266-267 Communications center, 49, 51 Computer aiding, 82-84, 270 Concurrent tasks, 61, 63, 64, 65, 80 Contingency planning, 61 Continuous control tasks, 59, 63, 79 Control design, 80-81 dynamics, 82 gain, 81 lag, 81-82 order, 82 tasks, 58, 61, 80 Cooperation, 9, 20, 45, 266, 268, 273 Crew compatibility, 10, 273 composition, 12, 32, 48, 273 continuity, 48 coordination, 3, 4, 10, 24, 36, 57, 85, INDEX 114, 195, 229-247, 258-259, 261, 266, 269, 273-274 downsizing, 2, 7, 10, 14, 17 duties, 19, 56 integrity, 3, 11, 30-31, 33, 34, 40-41, 50 leader, 6, 7-8, 62, 132, 199, 272 performance 3, 7-8, 10, 11, 15-20, 229, 235-236, 241-243, 273 productivity, 10, 273 reduced complement, 7, 10, 17, 241, 273 resource management and training, 7, 9, 12, 232-233, 255-256, 258-261, 273 structure, 28, 33, 37, 274 see also Team CREWCUT, 68 CRM, see Crew, resource management . . . and framing D Debiasing, 6, 10, 209, 272 see also Training, debias Decision aids, computer-based, 6, 208- 209, 211 Decision making biases, 6, 102, 199-201 communications and, 43, 231-232, 235, 272 distributed, 68, 240-241 expertise, 199, 201-202, 205, 272 heuristics, 6, 199-201 hypothesis formation, 199-202 model, 199-201 pattern matching, 201-202, 207 remediations, 6, 208-210 risk, 203-205 stress and, 78, 103-106, 112, 206- 208, 267-268 structure, 42, 43, 45 training and, 12, 31, 250, 256, 258, 259 Decision theory, 202-205 Disaster management, 45, 265 Discrete tasks, 58, 61, 76, 79, 224

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INDEX Display-control compatibility, 79-80 Displays controls and, 11, 21, 23, 24, 32, 58, 79-80, 269 integrating, 10, 70-71, 267 lag, 81-82 monitoring, 14 predictor, 83 Duty schedule, 3, 11, 28, 32, 33, 35, 41, 47, 48, 49, 50, 269 E Electronic aids, 6, 193, 194, 257, 271 Emergency medical services (EMS), 1, 3, 13, 14, 29-30, 32, 46-50, 172, 178, 265, 267 Emergency situation group processes in an, 234-235 problem solving, 9, 12, 102, 103-104, 105, 106, 255, 274 training approaches for an, 9, 248, 250, 255-261, 274-275 Environment commercial airlines, 32 emergency medical services, 32, 47- 48 emergency rooms, 50 nuclear power plants, 37 38, 39 ships, 44, 45 tank, see Tank, environment ~rains, 36 Event rate, 5, 144-145, 155, 156 Expectancy, 3, 7, 28, 29, 33, 34, 38, 47 Extended-duty operations, 97, 122, 128, 129-130 Exxon Valdez, 2, 15 F Failures, 2, 8, 19, 29, 83, 104 Fatigue, 4, 5, 9, 11, 17, 26, 33, 38, 40, 41, 51, 55, 57, 67, 68, 81, 85, 94, 96, 122-138, 151-152, 153-154, 171, 231, 266, 268, 269-270 Federal Aviation Administration, 68, 131, 233 279 Feedback, 11, 60, 257, 271 Firefighting, 14, 29, 31, 48, 106, 127 128, 201-202, 205, 220, 272 Fitts's Law, 58-59 Frames of reference, 174-175, 189-190, 191, 193, 271 Framing bias, 200, 204-205 G Geographic orientation, 3, 6, 19, 48, 171-197, 271 Golden Hour, 47, 49 H Helicopter crews, 6, 56, 172, 184- 189, 224 flight, 14 Heuristics anchoring, 6, 201 availability, 6, 200-201, 205 in decision making, 199-201, 272 in navigation, 176-178 in spatial awareness, 176-178, 210 Hick-Hyman Law, 65 Hospital, 13, 29, 127-128 Hours of Service Act, 35 Human factors design, 24-25, 28, 108- 109, 267, 270, 271 I Integrating displays, 10, 70-71, 267 L Language, 179-180 Lead time, 16, 82 Leadership, 3, 4, 10, 20, 26, 31, 67, 85, 112, 114, 129, 132, 232, 235-239, 241, 242, 248, 258, 259, 266, 273, 274 see also Team, leadership Lighting, 4, 50, 94, 96 Locus of control, 108

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280 M MlA1 Main Battle tank, 1, 2, 20, 257 Maintenance personnel, 13, 39 Man-Machine Integration, Design, and Analysis System, see MIDAS MANPRINT, 249, 261 Map complexity, 65 displays, 12, 71 rotation (north-up versus track-up), 11, 71, 176-177, 190, 191, 193, 194, 271 Marine Investigation Module, 42 Maritime industry, 40 Medical emergencies, 29, 220, 229 evacuation, 46, 128 personnel, 129 systems, 141 Memory long-term, 77-79, 99, 103-104, 105, 106, 110, 202 working, 5, 14, 63, 75, 77-78, 95, 99, 100, 102-103, 105, 107, 109, 124, 125, 207, 267 Mental models development of, 8, 171 navigational systems, 182-183, 190 updating, 18, 29 Merchant ship crews, 3, 39 Microsleep, 127, 130, 152 MIDAS, 68 Military doctrine, 14, 16, 155 Military protocol, 43-44 MINMOD, 42 Mission goals, 19 phase, 16, 56-57, 67, 85 planning, 11, 194 requirements, 4, 47, 192 segment, 83 Monitoring displays, 14, 269 tasks, 7, 11, 17, 38, 39, 72-73, 106, 139 team, 158-159 INDEX workload and, 20 see also Vigilance Multiple resource model, 76-77 N Naps, 10-11, 131, 269-270 Natural disasters, 3, 14, 29, 30, 45-46 Navigation computer-aided systems, 83-84 heuristics used, 176-178 information, 11 model of, 183-189 spatial rotation and, 176 tasks, 65,176,182-183,216 Noise impact on operator workload, 57 performance and, 102,104, 106, 107, 149,150 vigilance and, 5, 149-151 Novices versus experts, 8,106,107, 201,205,272 Nuclear power plants, 1, 13,29,30,32, 37-39, 56, 70, 100,102, 104, 141, 172,232-233,265 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 37 p Perceptual-motor interaction, 24 Perceptual tunneling, 101, 106,207 Performance circadian rhythm effects, 122-125, 151 cognitive, 5, 123-124 criteria, 58-60 decrements, 10, 15, 33, 40, 49, 55, 56, 64, 66, 76, 94, 95, 98-99, 101 102, 106-107, 125, 126-129, 131, 139-140, 145 effects of sleep deprivation, 126-129 noise and, 150 psychomotor, 5, 122-123, 124, 130, 131 relationship to workload, 2, 26, 54, 55-57 stress and, 97-107, 114

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INDEX team, 3, 7-8, 10, 11, 15-16, 229, 241- 243 visual, 142 Personality, 7, 10, 107, 108, 210, 232, 237-238, 241, 243, 248, 273 Physical workload, 4, 18 Pilots, 61-62, 81, 83-84, 94, 101, 103, 127-128, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183- 187, 202, 207-208, 223-224, 229 Planning, 6, 11, 16-17, 24, 31, 45, 61, 62, 85, 109, 187, 189, 190, 194, 267 Practice amount, 251-252, 274 for emergencies, 9, 12, 255, 273 repetitive, 104, 274 type, 219, 252-253 Preparation, 16-17 Presentation rate, 62, 65, 67 Preview, 7, 10, 62, 80, 82, 85, 224, 225, 273 Problem solving, 1, 8, 13- 14, 24, 104, 198, 230, 250, 255, 259, 268, 274 Procedures emergency, 10, 267, 274 following, 24, 250 Psychomotor performance, 5, 122- 123, 124, 130, 131 Q Queuing theory, 222-223 R Railroads, 3, 33-36, 42, 51, 127, 265 see also Train crews Rapid eye movement sleep, 5, 124 Reference frame comparisons, 175- 176 Resource allocation, 59, 60 cognitive, 9, 61 competition, 61, 67, 76-77 demands, 155 management, 231-232 physical, 61 281 requirements, 60, 76 theory, 147-148 Risk, 3, 28, 30, 32, 35, 45, 48, 50 S Satisficing, 205 Scheduling, see Task, schedule Ship crews military, 3, 39 size, 39-40 Ships, 39-45, 265 Short-term memory, see Memory, working Signal consp~cu~ty, ~ density, 143, 144, 159 detection, 146-147, 149, 151, 156 modality, 5, 142, 270 probability, 5 salience, 142, 143 uncertainty, 6, 157 Signal Detection Theory, 146-147 Signal-to-noise ratio, 69, 142-143 Simulation networking (SIMNET,, 9, 12, 210, 233, 255-257, 258, 272 273, 274 Situation awareness, 3-4, 5, 6, 7, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 36, 39, 45, 46, 48, 51, 73, 128, 171, 199, 210, 214, 221, 250, 258 Skill acquisition, 8, 9, 251-253, 254, 257 Sleep deprivation, 5, 34, 40, 122, 126-129, 130-32, 269-270 disruption, 5, 26, 36, 40, 49, 122-138 duration, 5, 124 efficiency, 125 inertia, 5, 122, 129, 131 loss, 3, 5, 11, 24, 96, 107, 127, 151 152 patterns, 33, 269-270 periods, 11, 35, 269 schedules, 46, 68, 128, 269 tendency, 124 see also Circadian rhythms

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282 Spatial awareness, 173-183, 191, 193 orientation, 24, 172 (see also Geographic orientation) working memory, 102-103, 106, 207 208 Speed-accuracy tradeoff, 9, 58-59, 104, 208, 216, 266 Stimulus complexity, 145-146 uncertainty, 143-144 Stimulus-response compatibility, 67 Strategic behavior, 215 goals, 16 planning, 24, 250 shifts, 104 Strategies adoption, 10, 19, 61, 64, 66, 85, 109 cognitive, 70 coping, 63, 85, 108-111, 267-268 definition, 215 development of, 8, 11 long-term, 17 performance criteria and, 58-60 reactive, 62 resource allocation, 59 scheduling, 59, 62 sequential, 62 switching, 61, 215-216 task management, 7, 26, 55, 214-228, 272-273 team-building, 112 team workload management, 62, 266 time-sharing, 61, 62 Stress communications and, 230 coping mechanisms, 108-111, 267 268 decision making and, 104-106, 205, 206-208, 268 environmental, 148-155 human performance and, 9, 10, 24, 31,97,107,114,267 incentives and, 11, 126, 130 management, 110, 111 - 114, 249, 259, 268 INDEX mediating effects, 11, 107-108, 160, 171 memory and, 78 noise, see Noise physical, 11 psychological, 55, 95-96 task-induced, 5, 152- 155 teams and, 114 training and, 160, 260, 274 work environment and, 30, 41, 47, 96-97, 267-268 Stressors consequences of, 94-96 direct, 95-96 environmental, 4, 9, 33, 44, 57, 85, 94, 148-155, 266, 268 indirect, 95 psychological, 4, 24, 94, 95 time, 61 Sustained attention, see Attentional tunneling; Vigilance System complexity, 84 design, 8, 249 failures, 29, 66 safety, 1, 5, 7, 13, 16, 33, 36, 39 T Tank crew, 5, 6, 8-9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 16-24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 37, 41, 42, 56-58, 63, 72, 95, 100, 112, 113, 128-131, 141, 155-156, 157, 159, 171-179, 180, 181, 183, 184-191, 193, 194, 198-199, 201, 204, 206, 207-208, 216, 220, 230, 241, 243, 255-256, 265, 268-269, 272, 274 design, 8, 15 environment, 3, 20, 28, 36, 44, 96- 97, 148, 229, 231, 233, 234, 242, 268-269 workstations, 20-24, 268-269 Target acquisition, 5, 11, 20, 22, 24, 58, 59, 61, 66, 80, 81, 141, 150-151, 158, 270, 271

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INDEX cueing, 1 1, 159, 271 detection and vigilance, 1 1, 24, 26, 139, 140-141, 142-143, 154, 270- 271 Task identification, 24, 38, 59 allocation, 82-84 automated, 2, 14 characteristics, 251 completion time, 59 complex, 7, 11, 59, 60, 99 complexity, 5, 65,107, 149 components, 8, 59 concurrent, 61, 63, 64, 65, 80 continuous control, 59, 63, 79 control, 58, 61, 80 data-limited, 56 demands, 4, 7, 10, 54-56, 57, 59-60, 61, 62, 63, 65-67, 77, 85, 102, 112, 181, 266 discrete, 58, 61, 76, 79 disengaging, 220 duration, 9, 58, 67-68, 266 engagement, 219-220 frequency, 64, 77 goals, 8 knowledge-based, 74-75 priorities, 59, 60, 221-225 requirements, 58, 68-69, 76, 79, 112 rule-based, 74-75 schedule, 9, 10, 58, 60-62, 68, 221 225, 266, 273 selection, 222-223 sequential, 80 skill-based, 74-75, 84 structure, 56, 57-58 switching, 214, 216-220 taxonomy, 147- 148 Task Load Index, 155 Team autonomy, 3 building, 1 1, 1 13-1 14, 268 cohesion, 6, 111-114, 210, 211, 230, 248, 273 continuity, 3, 33, 50 definition, 112 effectiveness, 233, 248 283 integrity, 3, 11, 30-31, 33, 34, 40-41, 50, 273 leadership, 6, 7-8, 62, 199, 229-247, 266, 273-274 models, 111-114 performance, 7, 10, 15-16, 229 qualities, 112, 268, 273-274 skills, 8 structure, 3, 26, 30, 266 see also Crew Temperature, 57, 96, 148-149, 159, 269 see also Stressors, environmental Three Mile Island, 2, 15, 37, 39, 102, 104, 198, 199,220,221,272 Time constant 28-29, 33, 45 constraints, 54 estimation, 181-182, 191 pressure, 4, 63, 78, 86, 94, 104, 106, 108, 224 Tracking tasks, 55, 59, 61, 76, 106 Train crews, 33-36, 51, 127-128, 128- 129 see also Railroads ~ . . raining approaches, 9, 10, 254-261, 275 to automaticity, 1 10, 160, 219, 261, 275 complex tasks, 256-257 crew resource management, 232-233, 273, 275 debias, 6, 10, 209 decision making and, 208-210, 257 domain, 6, 209-210 embedded, 9, 257-258, 274 for emergency responses, 8-9, 29, 248-264 guided, 252-253 leadership and crew coordination, 242-243 overtraining, 207-210, 253-254, 274 practice, 8, 12, 104, 251-253, 274 relaxation, 110 simulator, 9, 12, 29, 210, 233, 255 257, 258, 272-273, 274 skill retention and, 250-254, 274 stress and, 103-104, 109-111, 274

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284 vigilance and, 159- 160 workload and, 4, 57, 85, 254, 266 Trauma centers, 3, 48-50, 51 U Underload, 2, 3, 14, 15, 36, 38, 130, 258 see also Vigilance U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 43 U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory, 2, 15, 68 U.S. Coast Guard, 43 U.S. Navy, 43, 105 U.S.S. Vincennes, 104, 199, 200-201 V Vessel Traffic Services, 42, 43-44 Vibration, 4, 5, 30, 36, 44, 57, 95, 128, 151, 159, 269 see also Stressors, environmental INDEX Vigilance automation and, 140-141, 270 decrement, 140, 144, 146, 147, 160 historical background, 139-141 psychophysical determinants, 141 - 148 tank personnel and, 5, 141 target detection and, 139-170 training and, 159-160 workload and, 56 Vision blocks, 21, 22 Visual performance, 142 W Work-rest cycles, 33, 34, 41, 51 Workstation, 20-24 Yerkes-Dodson Law, 98-99, 100, 106 107