OMB is charged with administering the Paperwork Reduction Act, an objective of which is to constrain the volume of information that can be collected via government surveys.


Data on the labor force are collected monthly for BLS by the Bureau of the Census through its Current Population Survey. The detailed occupational data derived from this survey are generally reported as annual averages.


Because the first computer science degrees were awarded in the late 1960s, it is not surprising to find computer science faculty with degrees from other fields (e.g., mathematics), although their proportion is clearly diminishing. Moreover, according to both data and anecdotal accounts, significant proportions of people engaged in systems development and support do not have degrees in computing disciplines, a condition that is likely to continue (see discussion of employer perspectives in Chapter 3). Robert Kraut noted, "At Bellcore . . . there are 2,500 people who are involved in computer applications development of one sort or another. Half of them don't have a degree in anything related to computer science or computer engineering."


Professionals included computer systems analysts and scientists and computer science teachers at the college and university level. Programmers are covered as technical workers (e.g., technicians). Although BLS data differentiate "professionals" from "managers," some managers will be counted as professionals, and certainly the popular conception of computing professionals includes some (technical) managers.


CRA's Taulbee survey also includes Canadian schools in its sample. A recent comparison with NRC data indicates that only four U.S. universities awarding Ph.D.s were missing from the CRA data: Clarkson, Memphis State, Nova, and the University of Alabama, Huntsville. A total of eight doctorates were awarded by these institutions—a number so small that one can conclude that differences between CRA and NRC data should be minimal.


The reader should be cautioned, however, that academically employed Ph.D.s include more than just tenured or tenure-track faculty. Also included are postdocs and nontenure-track employees supported by soft-money contracts. For example, CRA reports that 8 percent of its estimated academically employed computer scientists and engineers are in such nontenure-track appointments. See Appendix A.


In 1991, for example, EMC estimates included 2,177 computer science degree recipients. These individuals were awarded degrees in the engineering schools that report to the EMC.

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