Grow; More than Recession at Work," and "Ph.D.s Fared Worse in 1990 Job Market, Survey Shows," Physics Today, March, 1992, pp. 55–58.


William G. Bowen and Julie Ann Sosa, Prospects for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1988.


Howard R. Bauer and Jack H. Schuster, American Professors: A National Resource Implied, Oxford University Press, New York, 1986; and Bowen and Sosa, Prospects, for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences , 1988.


According to unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients, Office of Scientific Engineering Personnel, the number of Ph.D.s who go on to hold postdoctoral appointments has been increasing in all fields, however. In the physical sciences, for example, the number rose from 2,500 in 1977 to 3,000 in 1989. The comparable numbers for computer science are 40 and 70.


See National Research Council, Postdoctoral Appointments and Disappointments, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990.


See National Research Council, Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists: Their Training and Supply, Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1989.


The legislation referred to concerns a current debate about whether software engineers should be certified or licensed, especially when they are producing safety-critical software.


Alan Radding, "Support: A Hot Line to a Computer Career," Computerworld , October 21, 1991, p. 132.

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