the same percentage of the total labor-months for WOCE scientists and postdocs should be valid for JGOFS, then JGOFS will require an estimated 4,300 labor-months (0.3 × 14,400) in this decade. The Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiment (RIDGE office estimates it needs 4,000 labor-months over the 1990–2000 decade, and the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program has estimated 6,600 labor-months at the PI and postdoctoral levels. If 6 labor-months per labor-year are assumed, equal annual effort over the decade, and full program funding are assumed, approximately 300 Ph.D.s will be required to carry out WOCE, JGOFS, GLOBEC, and RIDGE. Of these, 100 will be at the postdoctoral level. If only 50 percent of the average oceanographer's labor-months are available for research, about 22 percent of the 1990 academic oceanographer pool would be needed for these four programs, if they are fully funded.

Answering Specific Questions

How many Ph.D.-level oceanographers are there and at what rate has the number of Ph.D.-level ocean scientists changed over time? According to the OSB survey, there were 1,674 academic oceanographers and 516 federal oceanographers in 1990. The NSF survey (1989) estimated 1,354 academic oceanographers, 453 federally employed oceanographers, and 653 Ph.D.-level oceanographers in other sectors.

The growth rate in the number of Ph.D.-level oceanographers slowed from the 1970s to the 1980s. Average annual growth rates for the pool of academic oceanographers decreased from 4.7 to 4.0 percent according to NSF surveys, and from 6.4 to 2.6 percent according to the OSB survey. The slowing of growth was even more evident for the federal government.

How many ocean science doctorates are produced annually? The JOI data show that approximately 126 oceanography Ph.D.s were awarded from JOI institutions in 1991, which is the largest number in any year for which data are available.

What is the present age profile of oceanographers in academia and the federal government, and has it changed over time? The OSB survey measured a median age in the 40-to 50-year-old bracket for both academic and federally employed oceanographers. The JOI faculty age distribution shows a median of approximately 44 years. The median age of the field has increased over the past 20 years from the 35-to 39-year-old bracket to the 40-to 44-year-old bracket, according to the NSF survey. In addition, the median age



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