international advisory committee, was established in the late 1960s to provide formal advice to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP). JOIDES was a major initiative by the oceanographic community to develop a mechanism for international cooperative activities. Evolving from JOIDES was JOI, a formal not-for-profit corporation. JOI consists of 10 U.S. ocean science institutions that operate many of the large ships in the oceanographic fleet, employ a majority of U.S. academic ocean scientists, and receive a majority of the research funding. The JOI institutions are

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California

Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami

College of Oceanography, Oregon State University

Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island

College of Geosciences and Maritime Studies, Texas A&M University

Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas

College of Ocean and Fisheries Sciences, University of Washington

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

With the exception of Woods Hole, which has a joint education program with the Massachusetts Institution of Technology (MIT), each oceanographic program is an integral part of a major university.

Another cooperative organization of oceanographic institutions is the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), an association of ship operators and ship users that is discussed in more detail below. Because UNOLS provides access to facilities for scientists at institutions without ships, an increased number of universities can be involved in open ocean research. These universities may not have interests in all facets of oceanography, but they have significant strengths in certain areas. Examples of such universities are the Santa Cruz and Santa Barbara campuses of the University of California, Northwestern University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Princeton University.

The institutions developed within and outside the government for the pursuit of an understanding of the ocean are diverse, much more so than in most other scientific fields. Oceanography is conducted by individuals working as faculty members in conven-



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