bal change research is a national concern, resolution of this problem of transition is urgent.

The transition of NASA technology to Department of Defense (DOD) operational measurements has had mixed success; the microwave radiometer is now operational in the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and data are provided routinely to academic investigators. The Navy has flown, and plans to continue to fly, additional altimeters for ocean surface measurements. However, NASA's attempts to work with DOD on the flight of other instruments for surface winds and ocean color have floundered; this area also needs attention.

Because of the importance of oceanography to the Global Change Research Program, NASA should reestablish some mechanism with sufficient stature at headquarters to communicate with the marine science community. NASA should formulate, in collaboration with other agencies and the academic community, a coherent sense of where its long-term responsibilities lie for the overall health of marine science. For example, NASA is the agency that can nurture the special scientific and technical expertise required for the use of satellite remote-sensed data, and it must do so. Partnerships are key; it is more important than ever for the ocean community to develop partnerships with NASA, as it has with other agencies. NASA should help foster these partnerships. Further, NASA needs to recognize the importance of supporting surface-based programs that both directly support and help maximize the scientific returns from its spacecraft.

Department of Energy

The Department of Energy, formed in 1977, is responsible for supporting the development of energy production and conservation technology, the marketing of federal energy supplies, nuclear weapons research and development, energy regulation, and the collection and analysis of data on energy production and use. DOE has carried out marine-related research for many years, most recently as part of its Carbon Dioxide and Coastal Ocean Margins Programs in the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The research focused initially on understanding the fate of radionuclides. DOE marine research is presently concentrated on chemical and biological aspects of the global carbon cycle to understand the fate of the carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere as part of energy production and use. In particular, DOE has funded studies of integrated regional biological productivity on the continental



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