practical rule-making procedures of the Environmental Protection Agency. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a wide range of responsibilities in the ocean but is only now beginning to develop significant research programs in many of its areas of responsibility. The future vitality of basic oceanographic research in academia may depend on its forging productive partnerships with NOAA. Partnerships between academic oceanographers and NASA, DOE, USGS, or the Minerals Management Service will add diversity and vitality to the national oceanographic effort.

No simple description can usefully encompass the range of partnerships between federal agencies and the academic oceanography community. However, under the traditional arrangement, mission agencies, such as EPA, have received relatively little intellectual input from academia and provided relatively little funding to academic institutions. These agencies, whose short-term missions often require highly applied research, rely primarily on their own scientists. Yet, these same agencies have relied on academic scientists to provide the underpinning knowledge upon which their policy decisions are based. In general, the mission agencies have not contributed much to advancing fundamental knowledge in their areas of concern, perhaps assuming that NSF or ONR would fund basic research adequately. Such a perspective has the danger of focusing oceanography primarily on short-term applied problems. Achieving a sensible balance between basic and applied oceanographic research should be the concern of each agency using the results of ocean research.

As the context in which oceanography is conducted changes, how can federal agencies and oceanographers in academic institutions strengthen and improve their cooperative efforts? In general, partnerships must be extended beyond financial relationships to include the sharing of intellect, experience, data, instrument development, facilities, and labor.

Communication

Many mission agencies and academic scientists have little experience in interacting with one another, but both groups would benefit from doing so. The board recommends that each agency with an ocean mission and without existing strong links to the nongovernment community establish permanent mechanisms for ensuring outside scientific advice, review, and interaction. The obvious advantage of external consultation is that it provides an



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