semi-tropical marine ecosystems that contain nutrient-sensitive corals or other ecosystems with sensitive benthic communities in shallow water.

No strong consensus exists on the extent to which excess nutrients contribute to the increasingly frequent occurrence of toxic algal blooms in many parts of the world's coastal oceans. However, to minimize problems from such blooms, it seems prudent to maintain availabilities of nitrogen and phosphorus at levels low compared to silicon availability, thereby favoring diatoms. Since increased iron availabilities may also contribute to the formation of toxic blooms, increases in the availability of iron in coastal waters should also be avoided. Factors that increase iron availability include erosion from land and increased reducing conditions in sediments from eutrophication.

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