Index

A

Adenovirus, 99, 205

Aesthetic impacts

Boston Harbor, 43

defined, 108

and economic impacts, 108

quantification of, 108

water quality and, 121

Agricultural runoff, 2, 8, 55

Agriculture

best management practices, 28

pesticide application rates and timing, 28

Air pollution, 140

Alabama, 211

Albermarle-Pamlico Sound, 71

Algae, 115

aesthetic impacts, 108

bladderwrack, 180

filamentous, 180

opportunistic, 180

overgrowth of coral, 191

reef, 210

zooxanthallae, 181

see also Phytoplankton

Algal blooms, nuisance, 23, 24

and anoxia and hypoxia, 181

causes, 157, 182, 193-194

controls on, 182-194

diatom, 102, 181, 193

dinoflagelates, 181, 193, 210

estuaries experiencing, 33

and fish mortality, 181

frequency, 181-182, 193, 195

gambiodiscus toxins, 210

gold-brown dinoflagellate, 181, 193

gymnodinium, 210

health risks, 98

management of, 195

nutrients and, 8, 54, 95, 96, 102, 122, 177, 183, 193, 210

and pathogen survival, 217

and seagrass dieback, 180

silicon and, 102

threats to marine wildlife, 46, 54

toxins, 54, 181, 193, 209-210

trace metal availability and, 102-103, 194, 195

zooplankton grazing pressures and, 183

see also Brown tides;

Green tides;

Red tides

Ammonia, 135

Ammonium, 179, 186

Amphipods, 103



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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Index A Adenovirus, 99, 205 Aesthetic impacts Boston Harbor, 43 defined, 108 and economic impacts, 108 quantification of, 108 water quality and, 121 Agricultural runoff, 2, 8, 55 Agriculture best management practices, 28 pesticide application rates and timing, 28 Air pollution, 140 Alabama, 211 Albermarle-Pamlico Sound, 71 Algae, 115 aesthetic impacts, 108 bladderwrack, 180 filamentous, 180 opportunistic, 180 overgrowth of coral, 191 reef, 210 zooxanthallae, 181 see also Phytoplankton Algal blooms, nuisance, 23, 24 and anoxia and hypoxia, 181 causes, 157, 182, 193-194 controls on, 182-194 diatom, 102, 181, 193 dinoflagelates, 181, 193, 210 estuaries experiencing, 33 and fish mortality, 181 frequency, 181-182, 193, 195 gambiodiscus toxins, 210 gold-brown dinoflagellate, 181, 193 gymnodinium, 210 health risks, 98 management of, 195 nutrients and, 8, 54, 95, 96, 102, 122, 177, 183, 193, 210 and pathogen survival, 217 and seagrass dieback, 180 silicon and, 102 threats to marine wildlife, 46, 54 toxins, 54, 181, 193, 209-210 trace metal availability and, 102-103, 194, 195 zooplankton grazing pressures and, 183 see also Brown tides; Green tides; Red tides Ammonia, 135 Ammonium, 179, 186 Amphipods, 103

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Anoxia, 177 causes, 96, 102, 179, 181, 194 in continental shelf waters, 102 defined, 178 nitrogen loadings and, 192 Apalachicola Bay, 183, 184, 188-190 Arsenic, 6, 25, 99 Ascaris sp., 204 Astrovirus, 205 Atmospheric deposition, 2, 116 modeling and control, 138-139 of nutrients, 8, 55 of PCBs, 138 and urban runoff, 369 Aureococcus anophagefferens, 182 Australia, 180, 187 B Bacteria, 26 and closure of shellfish beds and beaches, 33 in coastal waters, 210, 211 enterococcus levels, 117, 118, 121, 127 examples, 99 indicator, see Coliform bacteria survival patterns, 67, 135 transport, 135 wastewater-associated, 207-208 waterborne diseases, 207-208 Baltic Sea, 178 algal bed dieback, 180 algal blooms in, 193, 194 anoxic bottom waters, 179 cyanobacteria blooms, 182, 187 nutrient limitation, 183, 188, 189 Barataria Bay, 71, 184, 190 Bay ecosystems, 53, 54, 56, 115 Beaches aesthetic concerns, 108 closed, 4-5, 33, 43 pathogens detected at, 211 plastics and floatables on, 108 safety concerns, 92 Santa Monica Bay, 115-116 trash/marine debris on, 5, 6, 27 Benthic accumulation of organic matter, 123 algae, 191 algal mats, 187 communities, 109 ecosystems, 36, 179 invertebrates, 178 release of contaminants, 124 Bioaccumulation of metals, 5, 123 of pesticides, 139 of toxic compounds, 25, 104, 138 Biochemical oxygen demand, 34, 58 concerns associated with, 10, 23, 56 deep-ocean discharge and, 60 definition and impacts, 24, 179 inputs to estuaries and coastal seas, 179 monitoring, 150 nutrients and, 6, 8, 10, 26, 54, 59 outfall design and, 6 priority assigned to, 5, 27 removal capabilities of treatment systems, 46-47, 57, 58, 59, 61 secondary treatment, 9-10, 46-47, 58, 59 standards, 32, 43 Biogeochemical cycles, 184-185 Biological treatment processes activated sludge treatment, 58 advances in, 311-312 biological aerated filters, 311 chemically enhanced primary plus, 57, 60, 61, 321-322 conventional primary plus, 57, 60, 61, 321, 329-331 high-biomass, 312 nitrogen discharges from, 59 plus nutrient removal, 57 secondary, 46-47, 49, 57, 158 sequencing batch reactors, 311-312 Biosolids (see Sludge) Boating traffic, 2, 22, 29, 108 Boston Harbor cleanup, 20, 42-47 coliform bacteria, 65 CSO discharges into, 43, 44, 65, 158

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas effluent discharges, 42-43 federal appropriations for, 44 flows (annual) in, 46 health risks from pathogens, 218 secondary treatment needs, 158 sludge discharges into, 43 Brown pelican, 25, 36 Brown tides, 8, 181, 182, 193, 194 Buzzards Bay, 71 Byfjord, 188, 189 C Cadmium, 5, 25, 99 Calcivirus, 205 California benthic animal communities, 179 Los Angeles, 115, 116, 140 Los Angeles County, 116, 179, 180 Ocean Plan, 47, 49, 117, 126, 127-128, 170 offshore swimmable boundary, 117 Orange County Sanitation Districts, 3, 116, 131-132, 234, 298-299 pathogens in shellfish-growing waters, 211 population growth, 70 rainfall patterns, 62 Santa Monica Bay, 114-119 State Water Resources Control Board, 47 wastewater flows, 70 Water Resources Control Board, 127, 128 water shortages, 49 Camden County wastewater treatment plant, 39 Campylobacter, 24, 99, 100, 207, 208, 209 Cancer, 99, 101, 112, 118 Cape Cod, 46 Capitellid worms, 103 Carcinogens, 99 Casco Bay, 71 Case histories Boston Harbor, 20, 42-47 San Diego, 47-51 Santa Monica Bay, 114-119 Cattle, 209, 211 Center for Marine Conservation, Coastal Cleanup program, 108 Charles River, 42 Chemical oxygen demand, 179, 150 Chesapeake Bay, 144-145, 166 Agreement, 96, 97 anoxia, 179, 192 Commission, 96 cyanobacteria blooms, 182 eutrophication, 41, 183 hydrodynamic water quality model, 96 monitoring program, 168 nitrate in, 138 nitrogen inputs, 184, 192 oyster population, 181, 183 nutrient control in, 34, 75, 95, 96-97 nutrient limitation on phytoplankton production, 183, 188-190 pathogens in, 211 seagrass dieback, 180 Chester River, 211 Chlordane, 118 Chlorine/chlorination, 5, 27, 58-59, 141, 346 Chlorophyll a, 39, 187-190 Cholera, 66, 203, 207 Chromium, 25 Ciguatera poisoning, 100, 210 Cladophora sp., 180 Clean Water Act (CWA), 2, 140 Area Wide Planning Studies, 16, 63 enforcement of discharge standards, 32, 399-400 EPA responsibilities under, 29, 167 litigation for violations of, 44-45 nonpoint-source pollution control, 31, 232 objectives of, 31 permits, 399 point sources under, 232 POTWs in compliance with, 33 reauthorization, 51 regional wastewater plans, 161 regulatory approach, 144, 146, 399 401

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas secondary treatment requirements, 43 Section 320 modification, 18, 170 standards, 43, 399 waivers from secondary treatment requirements, 3, 31, 34, 43-44, 50-51, 157, 171 water quality description, 126 Coast Guard, 29-30 Coastal environment human expectations for, 29, 89-90 population pressures on, 13, 21, 74 resources, 89 stresses on, 2, 13, 21-22, 74 Coastal management federal role in, 2-3, 29-30 funding availability for, 13 integration of environmental decision making, 396-398 local and regional government roles in, 30 objectives, 21 public role in, 30 region, definition of, 160-161 state role in, 29 sustainable, 74-76; see also Integrated coastal management Coastal waters differential response to wastewater and stormwater inputs, 54 dilution capacity, 7, 35, 138 exchange of marine waters, 53-54 Exclusive Economic Zone, 35, 36 nutrients in, 54-55 Coastal zone divisions, 35; see also Estuaries; Continental shelf waters; Ocean waters regional differences in characteristics, 35-36, 53-54 Coliform bacteria, 5 accuracy as health risk indicator, 11-12, 66-67 in Delaware Estuary, 40 detection, 62 enumeration methods, 67 fecal, 38, 40, 62, 66, 127, 208, 209, 218 in New York Harbor, 38 standards, 66, 121 survival in marine waters, 214, 215, 217 temporal and spatial considerations, 135 total, 38, 66, 127, 208, 209, 218 Coliphage, 67 Combined sewer overflow controls, 134 catch-basin cleaning, 353, 136-137 costs of treatment facilities, 11, 63 dynamic in-line storage and real-time control, 355-356 flow system optimization, 354-356 high-rate satellite treatment, 357-360 history and problems, 350-352 information requirements for, 135 integration of techniques, 65, 362-363 legislation of requirements, 63, 65 off-line storage, 360-362 performance comparisons of technologies, 11, 63, 363-366 for plastics and floatables, 125 recommendations, 10-11 research on, 62, 63 screening facilities, 358-359 secondary treatment, 45 sewer flushing, 353-354 sewer separation, 356-357 source controls, 137, 352-356 static control regulators, 355 storage capacity improvements and, 28, 46, 47, 137 storm drain warnings, 9 street sweeping, 9, 353 technologies, 352-366 vortex solids separators, 359-360 Combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 2, 41 aesthetic impacts, 108 bacterial contamination from, 46, 62, 99 defined, 27, 232 discharges into coastal waters, 43, 44 impacts, 10, 11, 61-62 modeling, 136-137

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas outlets, 136-137 pollutant loadings, 11, 62 toxic organic chemicals in, 5 and urban runoff, 372-373 Combined sewer systems, 43 Composting, of sludge, 340, 341 Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan, 17, 167-168 Coney Island, 36 Conjunctivitis, 205 Conservation Law Foundation, 44-45 Continental shelf waters anoxia in, 102 characteristics, 35-36 Copper, 25 Coral reefs die-off, 8, 20, 24, 55, 102, 177, 181, 190, 194 sensitivity to toxic substances, 105 Corpus Christi Bay, 71 Cost-effectiveness considerations in risk management, 141-142 of CSO and urban runoff treatment facilities, 11, 63 of integrated coastal management, 159 of pathogen detection methods, 68 of pollution prevention, 300, 303-307 of pretreatment, 303-307 and public support of environmental protection, 69 of wastewater reuse, 316-317 of wastewater treatment systems, 57, 59-61, 141-142 Coxsackie viruses, 99, 204, 205, 221 Cryptosporidium, 99, 100, 206, 207, 208-209 C. parvum, 209 Cyanobacteria, 182, 186-187, 194 D DDT, 5, 24, 33, 34, 36, 99, 116, 118 Dechlorination, 59, 346-347 Deicing chemicals, 372 Delaware Bay, 41, 71, 184, 190 Delaware Estuary fecal coliforms, 40 fish populations, 39 status of, 39-41 toxics, 39, 41 Delaware Inland Bays, 71 Delaware River dissolved oxygen concentrations, 39 effluent discharges into, 39 pollution control in, 33 water quality, 39 Denitrification, 58, 60, 186 Detention areas, 28 Developmental effects, 99 Diabetes, 12, 99 Diarrhea, 12, 65, 205, 206, 207 Diffuse sources defined, 136, 232, 240 modeling and control of, 136-139, 240 natural streams and rivers, 137-138 of nutrients, 8 see also Atmospheric deposition; Combined sewer overflows; Nonpoint sources; Stormwater runoff; other individual sources Dioxins, 5 Disinfection methods chlorination, 58-59, 346 dechlorination, 59, 346-347 efficacy in pathogen inactivation, 50, 65-66, 206, 348-350 electron beam, 348 ozone disinfection, 347 solids interference with, 60 toxicity, 122, 127 tradeoffs in use of, 60 ultraviolet irradiation, 59, 347-348 Dissolved oxygen concentrations, 92 causes of depletion, 9 in Delaware River, 39 in New York Harbor, 36, 39 and pathogen survival, 217 remedial actions, 124 temporal and spatial considerations, 135 water quality standard, 128

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas see also Anoxia; Biochemical oxygen demand; Hypoxia District of Columbia, 96, 137 Dolphins, mass deaths, 20 Domoic acid poisoning, 100 Dose-response relationships defined, 95 for microorganisms, 219, 219-222 nitrogen and eutrophication, 95, 97, 187-192 risk assessment and, 94 Dredging and filling, 2, 22, 29 Dubos, Rene, 98 Dumping, illegal, 63 Dumpsite 106, 139, 274-275 Dutch Wadden Sea, 180 Dysentery, 207 E Ear infections, 65 East River, 36, 180, 211 Echovirus, 99, 204, 205, 220, 222, 223, 224 Economic instruments for regulation, 82, 404-405, 412-413 administrative charges, 406 advantages over command-andcontrol regulation, 146-147 applicability, 172, 410 critique of, 408-412 deposit-refund systems, 407-408 development of, 77 effectiveness, 77, 408-409 efficiency, 409 effluent charges, 406 fairness, 409-410 feasibility, 410 incentives for technology improvement, 411 liability assignment, 408 liability insurance, 407 marketable permits, 407 monitoring and reporting requirements, 411 noncompliance fees, 408 performance bonds, 408 pollution prevention versus abatement, 412 product charges, 406 redistribution of income, 410 risk, 410-411 subsidies, 407 tax differentiation, 407 types of incentives, 405-408 user charges, 406 Economists, perspectives of, 91 Ecosystems health indicators, 103, 121 pelagic, 115 priority setting for, 119 sensitivity of, 104-105 stresses and stressors, 103-105, 111, 113 Education strategies, 82, 125 components, 146, 147, 418-420 evaluation as a tool, 422-423 examples, 420-421 and source control, 9, 56, 63 strategies and issues, 421-422 Effluent discharges from barges and ships, 238-239 into Boston Harbor, 42-43 into Delaware River, 39 limitations, charges, and prohibitions, 128, 131 mechanisms of input, 233-240 modeling, 12 monitoring requirements, 3 national permit system, 3, 4, 32 into New York Harbor, 34, 36 pathogens in, 99-100, 212 problems and remedial actions, 120, 122-125 regulation of, 29, 31, 127-128, 401-402; see also specific statutes into Santa Monica Bay, 116 screening, 125 standards, 401-402 technology-based standards, 31-32 temporal and spatial considerations in, 135 of toxic pollutants, 31 untreated, 39

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas wastewater reclamation and reuse as alternative to, 314-317 see also Outfalls Electric power production, 116 Endangered species, 25, 36, 46, 119 Endangered Species Act, 29 Energy conservation and recovery, 298 Enforcement mechanisms, 42, 50 Entamoeba sp., 99, 216 E. histolytica, 206-207 Enteric microorganisms die-off rates, 67 fish and shellfish contamination, 65 illnesses from bathing, 217-218 number in sewage, 203 occurrence in coastal waters, 211-214 survival in marine waters, 65, 214-217 in treated wastewater, 65 in urban storm runoff, 65 viruses, 5, 24, 27, 12, 211-214 Enteromorpha sp., 180 Environment, see Coastal environment Environmental degradation, measures of, 109 Environmental inequity, 90 Environmental professionals, 30 Environmental Protection Agency California Ocean Plan approval, 127 Chesapeake Bay Program, 96 consent decrees, 49-50 denial of secondary treatment waiver requests, 43-44 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, 149-150 health risk assessment, 117 lawsuits against, 45 National Esturary Program, 114, 167 permitting structure, 65 Quotient Method of risk assessment, 106-108 regulatory responsibilities, 29, 156 Science Advisory Board, 75 secondary treatment standards, 9 sediment quality assessment methods, 107, 108-109 target for environmental protection efforts, 75 water quality criteria, 66, 106 Environmentalists, perspectives of, 91 Erosion, 195, 372 Escherichia coli, 66, 67, 207, 208, 214, 215, 218 Estuaries algal blooms, 102 anoxia in, 102 characteristics, 35, 53-54 circulation patterns, 53-54 closed for shellfish harvesting, 33 ecological importance of, 35 eutrophication, 4, 54 impairment of designated uses of, 33 National Estuary Program participants, 71 nitrogen inputs to, 184 nutrient input rates, 102 protection strategies, 70, 71, 114, 144-145, 167-168, 396 sedimentation in, 7, 56 tropical lagoons, 183 Estuarine mixing zones, 26 Eutrophication, 4, 24, 27 and algal bed dieback, 180, 194 and anoxia and hypoxia, 92, 102, 177, 178-180, 194 biological secondary treatment and, 59 controls on, 138, 182-194 and coral reef die-off, 194 defined, 54 and dissolved oxygen, 9 dose-response relationships in, 187-192 estuaries with problems, 33 and food-web shifts, 54-55, 178 management, 188, 191-192 model, 41 nutrients and, 8, 33, 95, 177, 178-180, 182, 191-192 phosphate detergent bans and, 33 phytoplankton decomposition and, 179 and seagrass dieback, 180, 194

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas and silicon abundance, 193-194 zooplankton grazing pressures and, 183 Exclusive Economic Zone, 35, 36 Expenditures for treatment upgrades, 2, 20 F Federal Water Pollution Control, 156 1972 amendments, 2-3, 4, 31, 77 see also Clean Water Act Financing mechanisms, 146, 164 and cost burden of wastewater management system, 147 cost incidence and, 429 debt, 147, 427-428 dedicated taxes, 147, 426 economic impacts and, 428-430 general tax revenue, 147, 425-426 incentives for efficient management and, 429 intergovernmental transfers, 147, 427 revenue adequacy and stability and, 428 user charges, 147, 426-427 willingness to pay for services and, 430 Fish and shellfish algal blooms and, 181, 193 bacterial contamination of, 4-5, 12, 24, 26, 65, 203 bacteriological standards, 66 bay scallops, 181 habitat losses, 178 hypoxia and, 92, 178 kills, 98, 181 metal concentrations in, 5, 25, 118 methyl mercury in, 100 nutrient effects on, 8, 55, 92, 102 oysters, 181, 183, 211, 222 population increases, 39 protection of, 31 risk assessment, 100, 224-226 sardine, 115 toxic contaminants in, 33, 118 toxins in, 181, 193, 209-210 unacceptable for human consumption, 41 viral contamination, 222 see also Seafood; Shellfish beds Fish and Wildlife Service, 30 Fisheries, 81, 82, 105, 119 bait burse seine, 116 Fishing commercial interests, 30, 116 line, 25 Fishstock management, 29 Floatables, see Plastics and floatables Flocculation, 7 Flood channels, 232 Florida pathogens in shellfish-growing waters, 211 red tides, 193, 194 seafood safety concerns, 66 Florida Keys, coral die-off in, 20 Food and Drug Administration, 29, 66 Food webs bioaccumulation of toxics in, 139 nutrient enrichment and, 54-55, 102, 178 Freshwater flows, 22 impoundment and diversion, 2 nutrients in, 8, 26, 54, 102, 183, 185 phytoplankton production in, 183, 185 Fucus sp., 180 G Galveston Bay, 71 Garbage, 108 Gastroenteritis bacterial, 211 exposure routes, 217-218 infantile, 205 outbreaks, 204 seafood-associated, 207, 222 from swimming, 217-218 viruses, 205 Gastrointestinal illness, 24, 26, 99, 117

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Gene probes, 68 Giardia sp., 12, 99, 100, 204, 208-209, 215, 216 G. lamblia, 206, 207 Grants for small business, 305, 307 Graveline Bayou, 212 Great Lakes, 138 International Joint Commission, 110 Water Quality Agreement, 75, 166 Great South Bay, 193 Green tides, 181, 193 Ground water contaminated, infiltration of, 22 discharge, nutrients in, 8, 55 flow, 2 Growth management, 144, 145 applications, 146, 147 evaluation of planning tool, 416-417 implementation of, 172 land-use planning and, 413-414 planning for bays, sounds, and estuaries, 414-415 water resource planning and management, 415-416 H Habitat destruction ecosystem priorities and, 119 hypoxia and, 178 spawning fish, 22 Habitats critical, 35 priority setting for, 119 Harvey-Peel estuary, 187 Hawaii, 33 Hazardous materials, 23, 29 examples, 5 household, collection programs, 63 priority assigned to, 5, 27 spills, 29-30 Health (human) effects acute effects, 98-99 Boston Harbor, 43 chronic, 99 definition of health, 98 development of clinical illness, 220-221 economic consequences as, 98 high-risk behaviors, 100 illnesses from bathing, 217-218 lost recreational opportunities as, 98 risk assessment, 68, 94, 98-101, 118-119, 218-224 stressors considered as, 98-99 and water quality, 121 see also Coliform bacteria; Enteric microorganisms; Pathogens Heavy metals, 23 concerns about, 5-6, 10, 56 at CSO outfalls, 62 dissolved, 5 examples and impacts, 25, 26 monitoring of, 150 priority assigned to, 5-6 removal during primary treatment, 58, 10, 60-61 risk assessment, 99 seafood contamination, 118 in sediments, 135 source control, 5, 46, 55, 141 temporal and spatial scales, 135 toxicity determinants, 99 in urban runoff, 62, 374 see also Trace metals; and individual metals Helminths, 204 Hepatitis A, 12, 24, 26, 66, 99, 204, 205, 221, 222, 224 Hepatitis non-A, non-B, 205 Herpangina, 205 Hong Kong harbor, 193 Hookworms, 204 Hudson River, 182, 183, 211 Humboldt-Arcata Bay, 211 Humpback whale, 46 Hurricanes, 23 Hypoxia causes, 96, 102, 157, 177, 179, 181, 194 ecological damage from, 178-179 and fish and shellfish stocks, 92 temporal and spatial scales, 135

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas I Incineration of sludge, 59, 139, 342-343 Indian River Lagoon, 71 Industrial discharges pretreatment, 9, 28, 46, 55, 123 reduction of, 28 source control and, 55 of spent cooling water, 2, 21 of treated wastewater, 2, 21 Information management, 84-85, 150-151 Integrated coastal management administrative authorities, 81, 93-94, 161-162 applicability, 85-86 barriers and solutions, 16, 75, 83, 160-165 benefits, 16, 75, 158-160 conservative analyses and, 92 contingency planning, 165 cost-effectiveness considerations, 159 cross-media considerations, 140-141 defined, 14, 77, 88 definition of coastal management region, 160-161 development of plans, 70, 145 ecologically based strategy, 77-78 economic interests and, 92 enforcement of commitments, 165 examples, 96 federal legislation for, 170-171 fiscal considerations, 92 flexibility in, 16, 78, 84, 128, 159 implementation of, 14, 17-19, 42, 84, 136, 145-147, 164, 165-172 institutional arrangements, 83-84, 144-145, 169-170 international agenda, 76 local support and commitment, 159-160 methodology, 75 monitoring progress, 14, 42, 84, 93, 128, 149-150, 164-165 objectives, 13, 14, 16, 41-42, 75, 76, 77, 79, 92 personalized expectations and, 92 political objectives and, 84, 86, 91 pollution prevention and, 172 preservation interests, 92 principles, 14, 76-79 professional perspectives and, 91 public expectations and, 16, 76, 77, 78, 84, 86, 89-91, 92 public involvement in, 16-17, 42, 90-91, 168 recommendations, 14, 17 regulation of, 171-172 research program, 14, 42, 85, 93, 151 resource considerations in, 93 scientific demands and, 92 social science dimensions of, 172 sources of contaminants and, 93 technical progress and, 76 transdisciplinary perspective, 78 World Bank guidelines, 76 see also individual programs Integrated coastal management process assessment of human expectations, 89-91 consensus building in, 163 defining issues, 91-92, 116-117 domain definition, 16, 80-81, 93-94, 95, 96-97, 160-161 dynamic planning, 14-15, 42, 78, 83, 88-143, 149, 151, 158-159 environmental processes, defining, 79 feasibility considerations, 94, 142 feedback in, 83, 84, 86, 136, 149 goal setting, 79-80, 88-92, 93, 95, 96-97, 158, 162-164 health stressors considered in, 98 human expectations, defining, 80, 98 information management, 78, 84-85, 150-151, 169 inventory of resources and conditions, 89, 165 priority setting, 79, 81, 95, 110, 119 public's role in, 82 review of existing scientific knowledge, 89 risk assessment, 42, 78, 81-82, 85, 88, 94-95, 98-110, 117-119, 163

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas risk comparison, 78, 81-82, 85, 88, 110-114 risk management alternatives, development of, 81, 84, 82-83, 120-143, 163 for Santa Monica Bay, 114-119 selection of options, 14, 15, 78, 84, 147-149 International Joint Commission, 110 Interstitial water toxicity, 109 Intertidal ecosystems, 36, 180 Introduced species, 2, 23 Iron, 24, 102-103, 187, 194, 195 Isospora, 206 K Kaneohe Bay, 184, 188-191 Kattegat, 179, 193 Kelp beds bacteriological standards for, 47, 49, 50 dieback, 180-181 forests, 115 solids discharges into, 180-181 water quality requirements, 117, 141 Kill van Kull, 36 King Harbor, 115 Kungsbacka Fjord, 188, 189 L Lake Pontchartrain, 218 Land disposal of sludge, 47, 59, 139, 340, 341 Land use in coastal watersheds, 2, 21 growth management and, 396-397, 413-414 implementation of management objectives, 84 planning for bays, sounds, and estuaries, 82, 145, 164, 414-415 and urban pollutant loading, 373 Lawn chemicals, 372 Lead, 5, 6, 25, 27, 33, 139 Listeria monocytogenes, 211 Litigation and Boston Harbor cleanup, 108, 110 for CWA violations, 44-45, 49 of damage recovery, federal role in, 29 for raw sewage spills, 49 United States and State of California v. San Diego, 50 Litter, 116, 369 Liver disease, 99 Loch Etive, 188 Long Island, virus counts, 67 Long Island Sound, 33, 71, 136 brown tides, 181 contaminated shellfish beds, 92 eutrophication, 92, 190 fish and shellfish stocks, 92, 181 green tides, 181 hypoxia in, 157, 179, 180, 190 integrated nitrogen management plan, 157 nitrogen inputs from sewage, 157, 184, 188, 190 phosphorus loadings, 189 phytoplankton production, 188, 189, 190 Study, 157 Los Angeles County coast, 33-34 Louisiana, 211 M Macrocystis pyrifera, 180 Maine, red tides, 194 Management approaches, see Wastewater management approaches Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory, 185 Marine resource restoration projects, 29 Marine sanctuaries, 83 Marine wildlife chlorine toxicity, 59 hazards of plastics and floatables to, 25, 108 monitoring populations of, 29 protection of, 31 refuges, 30

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas see also Source control Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 5, 25, 27 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 5, 26, 33, 34,99, 118, 138, 139 Polymerase chain reaction, 68 Population growth, coastal, 2, 21, 22, 33 Potomac Estuary, 184 Poultry, 209 Pretreatment, 296 cost-benefit ratios, 303-307 environmental benefits, 301-302 grants for small businesses, 305, 307 industrial, 9, 46 multimedia permitting, 307 pollution prevention contrasted with, 301-307 quality certification of technology, 307 Primary treatment advanced, 123 and BOD loading to secondary treatment, 46-47 chemically enhanced, 9, 10, 46-47, 49, 50, 57, 58, 60, 61, 123, 131, 158, 320-322, 329-332 conventional, 57 description of, 58, 320-321 filtration advances, 310 nitrogen discharges from, 59 oil and grease removal in, 123 plants, 43 plus activated carbon, 60, 61 plus biological treatment, 57, 60, 61, 321, 329-331 plus gravity filtration, 60, 61 plus high lime, 60, 61 plus nutrient removal, 60, 61 plus reverse osmosis, 60, 61 sedimentation in, 131 Private entrepreneurs, perspectives of, 91 Protozoa, 12, 26, 100 animal reservoirs of, 208-209 in coastal waters, 210 detection, 67 levels in sewage, 206 removal from wastewater, 206 survival time, 135, 206, 214-216 transport, 135 in wastewater, 204, 206-207 and waterborne diseases, 206 Public expectations assessment techniques, 90 changes over time, 90, 92 communication of, 90 and cost-benefit considerations, 142-143 diversity of, 90-91 environmental inequity, 90 high-risk behavior and, 100 identification of, 90-91, 93 stressors considered as part of, 98 Public health professionals, perspectives of, 91 Public interest groups, 30, 44-45 Publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) in compliance with Clean Water Act, 33 federal funding for, 31 major, defined, 33 n.4 monitoring, 34 waiver of secondary-treatment requirements, 3, 32, 34, 157, 171 see also Municipal wastewater treatment plants Puget Sound, 33, 71, 275 Q Quincy, Massachusetts, litigation, 45-46, 108-109 Quincy Bay, 108-109 R Raritan Bay, 184 Recommendations CSO abatement requirements, 10-11 environmental quality-based treatment approaches, 10 flexibility in wastewater management systems, 12

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas implementation of integrated coastal management, 17 integrated coastal management, 14, 17 nutrient control, 8 pathogen monitoring, 12 regionally tailored management strategies, 7-8 source control, 9 urban runoff abatement requirements, 10-11 Recreational water aesthetic impacts, 108 bacteriological standards, 66 contaminated, 26 ''fishable and swimmable" goals, 31, 156 health risks, 98 microbiological risks, 65, 224-226 pathogens and diseases associated with, 203, 204, 212, 222 Recycling and reuse economic advantages, 300-301, 316-317 source reduction through, 296-297 wastewater, 49, 314-317 Red tides, 8, 181-182, 193, 194, 210 Refuse, 125 Regulation/regulatory system alternative modes of, 171-172 command and control, 146, 171, 398-404 complexity of urban systems and, 403 effluent discharges, 127-128 enforcement, 77 environmental-quality-driven, 158-159 and federalism, 400 flexibility in, 68, 84, 146 of industrial pre-treatment, 401 institutional setting for, 144 new issues, 403 of nonpoint sources, 127-128, 400-401 of outfalls, 232 overcontrol and undercontrol, 11, 63, 65, 140 of runoff, 11, 63, 65 standards-based, 82 waivers and variances, 402-403 see also Clean Water Act; Economic instruments for regulation Reovirus, 205 Reproductive toxicity, 99 Research on CSO treatment, 11, 62 funding, 62 integrated coastal management, 85, 93, 151 on Massachusetts Bay environmental processes, 47 needs, 11, 63 on pollution control, 29 regulatory requirements for, 29 on stormwater runoff controls, 11, 62-63 on wastewater management approaches, 28 Resource valuation, 74-75, 89 Respiratory infections, 65, 205 Rhode Island, 211 Risk assessment aesthetic impacts, 108, 110 comparison of risks, 81-82, 110-114, 119 dose-response relationships, 94, 95, 97, 98, 219-222 ecological, 94, 95, 101-108, 109-110 economic considerations in, 108 EPA Quotient Method, 106-108 epidemiology and, 101 exposure assessment, 94, 95, 98, 222 extrapolation from animal studies, 101 hazard identification, 93, 94, 95 human health, 68, 94, 98-101, 111, 118, 218-224 information management and, 85 limit of detection, 100-101 for microorganisms, 100, 218-224 of nutrients, 97, 101-102 pathogens in seawater and shellfish, 100, 121 populations considered in, 100, 112

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas prioritization of issues, 95 process, 94-110 response levels of marine organisms to chemcial contaminants, 103-104 risk characterization, 94-95, 105 and risk communication, 112, 114 spatial and temporal considerations, 105, 135 of toxic substances, 101, 104-105 uncertainty in, 100, 126, 151 uses, 94 Risk management alternatives, 82-83 ambient water-quality objectives and, 121, 126 benefit-cost assessment, 82, 142-143 cost and feasibility considerations, 141-142 cross-media considerations, 140-141 diffuse sources, 136-139 economic incentives, 82 environmental-quality approach, 126, 130 information management and, 85 lessons from existing situations, 121 modeling pollutant transport and fate, 134-139 ocean sludge disposal, 138-140 problem-focused, 120-121, 122-125 process, 120, 143-144 public expectations and, 142-143 regulatory system and, 82 system components, 131-134 water-quality driven approach, 278-280 see also Integrated coastal management Risk screening, 92 Rotavirus, 204, 205, 220, 221, 224 Roundworms, 204 Runoff agricultural, 2 best management practices and, 28 pathogens in, 4 structural controls, 28 see also Urban runoff S St. Lawrence River, 188, 189 St. Margarets Bay, 188, 189 Salmonella, 24, 99, 100, 207, 208, 209, 211, 215 S. typhi, 208 Salt marshes, 35 San Diego, 20, 47-51 benthic animal communities, 179 Clean Water Program, 49 consent decree with EPA, 49-50 enforcement actions against, 50 lawsuits against, 49-50 locations of wastewater and sludge management facilities, 48 Metropolitan Sewerage System, 47 primary treatment systems, 47, 49, 50, 158 Regional Water Quality Control Board, 49 secondary treatment systems, 49, 50-51, 158 sewage generated by, 47 sewage spills, 49, 50 sludge composting and disposal, 47 stormwater discharges, 158 water conservation, 49, 50, 158 water shortages, 49 San Diego Bay, water quality, 47 San Francisco Bay, 34, 71, 184, 188-190 San Juan Harbor, 71 San Pedro Bay, 115 Sanitary sewers, 27 Santa Monica Bay contaminant sources, 116 drainage into, 114, 115 ecological health, 119 ecosystem, 115 environmental quality issues, 92, 116-117 fish consumption survey, 151 health risks, 117-118 industrial and municipal disposal uses, 116 major uses, 115-116

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas National Estuary Program participation, 71 Restoration Project, 112, 114-117, 119 risk assessment, 110-111, 113 seafood contamination, 110-111, 118-119 stressors, 113 swimming and water contact issues, 92, 110-111, 117-118 wetlands, 115, 119 Saltwater, nutrients in, 26 Scientists, perspectives of, 91 Scromboid poisoning, 100, 209, 210 Seafood contamination, 99, 118-119, 207, 222 paralytic or diarrheal shellfish poisoning, 100, 181, 209, 210 risk assessment, 118 safety, 29; see also Pathogens site-specific advisories, 118-119 survey of consumption patterns, 151 see also Fish and shellfish Seagrasses, 24 dieback of, 8, 55, 95, 96, 102, 177, 180-181, 194 improper handling of, 210 nutrients and, 8, 55, 95, 96, 102, 177, 180, 187 phytoplankton shading and, 180 symbionts of, 187 Seawater nutrient effects in, 8, 34, 102, 185 pathogen survival in, 214 risk assessment, 100 Seaweed, 115 Secondary treatment activated sludge treatment, 58 benefits of, 34 biological, 46-47, 49, 57, 58, 158 and BOD, 9-10, 46-47, 124 construction of new facilities, 45, 46 costs, 338, 340 CWA requirements, 43 energy requirements for, 140 nitrogen discharges from, 59 nutrient removal, 4, 122 oil and grease removal in, 123 outfalls and, 130 source control and, 131 standards, 9 upgrades of plants for, 39, 43 waivers for POTWs, 3, 32, 43-44, 47, 50-51, 131, 157, 171 Sediment quality apparent effects threshold, 110 assessment methods, 107, 109-110 bulk sediment toxicity, 109 definition and criteria, 107, 267-270 engineering systems design based on, 126, 129-130 equilibrium partitioning, 109 International Joint Commission assessment, 110 interstitial water toxicity, 109 modeling, 107, 270-272, 280-282 monitoring, 69 objectives, 7-8, 126 problems, 9 sludge dumping and, 139 spiked-sediment toxicity, 109 standards setting, 121, 126 tissue residue tests, 109 values, 107 Sediment-water interface, 253-254 Sedimentation, 24 benefits of, 138 and coral dieoff. 181 of decomposing phytoplankton, 181, 193-194 in estuaries, 7, 56 flocculation and, 7 outfall diffusers and, 56 processes, 263-267 Sediments accumulation of pollutants in, 7, 54, 62, 116, 123 anaerobic, 6 biogeochemical process within, 186 calcium carbonate, 187 contaminant reactions, 265-266 contaminated, 2, 5, 6, 22, 25, 33, 107, 126, 266 DDT in, 116

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas deposition, resuspension, and transport, 102, 264-265 fine, 138 freshwater versus saltwater, 186 mixing, 265-266 monitoring contaminants in, 150 negative effects of secondary treatment on, 33-34 N:P ratios, 185-186 nutrient releases from, 8, 59, 185 ocean floor, 6, 36 pathogens in, 211, 217, 218 protection from particle-associated pollutants, 6-7 release to water column, 265-266 risk assessment, 107 river discharges of, 138 toxic organics in, 62, 99, 138, 150, 257-258 in urban runoff, 374-375 U.S. experience, 266 see also Particulate matter; Solids Septic systems, 98, 99, 212, 372 Sewage amounts generated, 47 nitrogen inputs from, 183-184 pathogens in, 4, 204, 206 source reduction, 28 spills, 49 untreated, 204 see also Effluent discharges; Wastewater Sewer separation and CSO abatement, 137 conventional full, 356-357 flow slipping, 357 partial, 356-357 practicality of, 137 Sheep, 209 Shellfish beds closed, 4-5, 33, 43, 213 open, 213 reopening of, 92 virus isolations from, 213 Shigella, 24, 204, 207-208 Ships/shipping, 2, 22, 30, 108 effluent discharges from, 238-239 Silica/silicon, 8, 24, 102, 182, 193 Silver, 25 Skagerrak, 193 Skin infections, 65 Sludge biological treatment, 58 composting, 47, 59, 340, 341 conversion to fertilizer pellets, 46 costs of treatment, 10, 59, 338, 340 cross-media consequences of disposal methods, 139, 140 defined, 58 dewatering, 59, 140 digestion/digested, 59, 139, 140 direct land application, 343 discharges into coastal waters, 43 dumpsite 106, 139-140, 274-275 incineration of, 59, 139, 140, 342-343 land application of, 59 land-based processing facility, 45 land disposal of, 47, 59, 139, 340, 341 metals and toxics in, 58 methane from, 59 modeling of discharges, 139-140 and nutrients, 139-140 ocean disposal of, 139-140 outfall, 140 particles from, 248-255 source control and quality of, 8, 55, 130, 131, 139 treatment, 32 untreated, 204 volume produced, 10, 58, 338, 339 Small business, grants for source control, 305, 307 Snow Mt. agent, 205 Solar light, and pathogen survival, 217 Solids, 23 coagulants, 131 controls, 6 digestion of, 59 and disinfection, 60 effluent limitations, 128 examples and impacts, 6, 24, 26, 56, 180-181

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas fine, 10 mechanical screening, 137 monitoring, 150 pollutants associated with, 9, 56, 180-181 priority assigned to, 5, 6-7, 27 removal efficiency of treatment processes, 9, 10, 49, 50, 57, 59, 60, 137 secondary treatment, 9, 58 separators, vortex, 137, 359-360 settleable, 6, 58, 128 sources, 6-7 standards for, 9, 32, 43 suspended, 6, 9, 26, 49, 56, 57, 121, 128, 131, 137, 374-375 swirl concentrators, 137 total suspended, 32, 43, 57, 59, 60, 150 toxicity of, 10 see also Sediments; Sludge Solvents, 5, 6, 26 Sounds, 8 Source control/reduction, 2, 3 approaches, 28, 131 of combined sewer overflows, 9, 63, 352-356 cost-benefit ratios, 303-307 defined, 131 effectiveness, 8, 9, 55, 70, 131 environmental monitoring data and, 70 of metals, 5, 8, 9, 46, 55, 141 modeling, 70 of oil and grease, 9, 55, 123 of pollution in urban runoff, 63, 376-378 recommendation, 9 and sludge quality, 55, 130, 131, 139 of toxic organic chemicals, 8, 9, 46, 55, 70, 130, 131, 141 and urban runoff pollutants, 55-56 see also Pollution prevention; Pretreatment; Recycling and reuse South Beach, 36 South Carolina, 211 South Wales, 212 Southern California Association of Governments, 117 Southern California Bight, 33, 114, 275 Spain, 211 Speciation, trace elements and, 258-261 Spent cooling water, 21, 116 Spills response and containment programs, 63 see also Hazardous materials; Oil spills and leaks Sponges, 181 Staten Island, 36 Storm drains, 231-232 Storm sewers cross-connections and illicit discharges into, 372 designs, 9, 56, 63 outlets for, 116, 136 removal of floor drain connections to, 63 storage capacity, 28 warning signs, 9, 55-56 Stormwater runoff, 116 assessment of aquatic and human health impacts, 62 costs of quality controls, 384-385 fecal coliforms in, 62 impact of, 61-65 modeling and control, 136-137 nutrients in, 98 outlets, 136-137 pathogens in, 62, 98 quality enhancement with artificial wetlands, 383 regulation of discharges, 65 sources, 23 see also Urban runoff Stream modification methods, 137-138 Structural controls for runoff, 378-379 artificial wetlands, 383 defined, 378 detention devices, 382-383 filter strips, 379, 381 infiltration devices, 381-382 minimization of directly connected impervious areas, 379

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas pollutant removal efficiencies compared, 384 porous pavement and parking blocks, 56, 381 research initiatives, 62-63 retrofitting controls to existing developments, 383-384 storm sewer design, 9, 56 swales, 379, 381 Subtidal benthos, 119 Sulfate, 186 Sulfur, 182 Surfactants, 25 Swedish coastal waters, 179 Swimming and water contact issues, 99, 117-118 Syringes, 108 T Tampa Bay, 71 Tapeworms, 204 Technology mandatory controls on, 42 quality certification of, 307 Terrebonne Bay, 71 Texas, 211, 212, 213, 223 Tidal fluxes, 54, 212 Tide gates, 137 Tijuana, Mexico, 47 Tillamook Bay, 71 Tin, 5, 25, 118 Toxic chemicals used in treatment bioaccumulation of, 25 concerns about, 6 examples and impacts, 25, 26 priority assigned to, 27 Toxic organic chemicals, 23 bans, 137 bioaccumulation, 104 chemical and biological conversions of, 256-261 concerns about, 5, 39, 41, 56 at CSO outfalls, 62 in Delaware Estuary, 39, 41 ecological effects, 103 effluent limitations, 127 in fish and shellfish, 5 levels of ecosystem response to, 103-104 monitoring of, 150 ocean potential for dilution of, 36 priority assigned to, 5, 27 removal in primary treatment, 10, 58, 60 response levels of marine organisms to chemical contaminants, 103-104 risk assessment, 101, 103-104 in sediments, 9, 60, 138, 257-258 source reduction, 8, 9, 46, 55, 130, 141 sources, 5, 99 transformation processes, 256-257 in urban runoff, 62, 374 water quality standards, 127 see also individual chemicals Toxins in fish and shellfish, 209-210 Trace metals and algal blooms, 194 bioavailability, 260-261 and cyanobacteria production, 187 diffusion, 123 examples, 5 organic ligand complexation, 259-260 priority assigned to, 5, 27 in sediments, 123 source control, 8, 9, 123 and speciation, 258-261 Traffic, and urban runoff, 368-369 Transport of pollutants buoyance-driven flows, 244-245 dispersion, 242-244 far-field, 240-248, 253 modeling and measurement, 247-248, 280-282 net advective processes, 244-246 nutrients, 261-263 oceanic currents impinging on coasts, 246 at outfalls, 252-253 particles from wastewater and sludge, 251-255

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas sediments, 264-265 toxic organic chemicals, 256-258 wind-driven motions, 245-246 Trash and debris, 6, 25, 27 Tributyltin, 118 Turbidity, 24, 122, 128, 138, 182-183, 187 Typhoid, 66, 203, 207 U Ultraviolet irradiation, 59, 347-348 United Kingdom, 209 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 76 Urban issues complexity of urban systems, 403 waivers and variances, 402-403 Urban runoff, 5, 22 aesthetic impacts, 108 composition, 368-373 contaminants (most significant) in, 373-375 impacts, 10, 61-62 land use and, 373 metals in, 99, 139, 374 nutrients in, 8, 55 pathogens in, 374 pollutant loadings, 11, 62 regional hydrology and, 63 suspended solids as pollutant transporters, 374-375 toxic organic pollutants, 99, 374 Urban runoff management capture efficiency of detention basins, 63-64 costs of treatment facilities, 11, 63 erosion controls, 9 integration of CSOs and sanitary system overflows in, 65 rating treatment practices, 11, 384 recommendations, 10-11 research, 11, 62-63 source reduction of pollution in, 63, 376-378 street sweeping and, 55, 63, 125, 137 types of controls and control philosophy, 376 see also Structural controls for runoff V Vibrio sp., 24, 99, 207, 208 V. cholera, 208 V. parahaemolyticus, 211 Virginia, 96, 211 Viruses, 26, 204 in coastal waters, 210, 211-214 detection, 67, 211-212 disease incidence and mortality rates, 204-205 enteric, 12, 204 examples, 99 monitoring, 211 recreational exposures, 203, 222 risk model applied to shellfish consumption, 222-224 seafood contamination, 203, 204, 212 in sediments, 217 in stormwater, 117 survival time, 135, 204, 212, 214-217 transport, 135 in wastewater, 204 see also Enteric viruses W Washington, 211 Wastewater collection, 27 location and mechanism of discharges, 28 metals in, 99 nutrient concentrations in, 177 open-ocean discharges, 28 particles from, 248-255 pathogens associated with, 203-210 reclamation and reuse, 61, 314-317 toxic organic chemicals in, 99 Wastewater and stormwater management approaches activities involved in, 1-2

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas adequacy of, 42, 148 Boston Harbor, 20, 41-47 case histories, 20, 41-51 challenges in, 41-32, 172-173 and coastal management objectives, 21 comprehensiveness test, 148 concepts, 13 cost-effectiveness considerations, 69 current policies, 2-7, 31-32 development of alternatives, 31, 68-69, 145 economic incentives, 404-413 education for behavior change, 2, 28, 56 environmental quality-based, 10, 16, 127-128, 158-159 environmental studies of, 2 evaluation and feedback, 12-13, 42, 69-70, 145 flexibility in, 12-13, 16, 68-70, 145 funding of, 4, 164 government role in, 144 information sharing on, 30 integration test, 148 issues, 1, 21 legislation, 2-3 monitoring and research program, 28 non-inferiority test, 148 objectives, 158 plan components, 145-146 pollution prevention and, 55, 297-298 progress in, 3-4 public role in, 30 purpose of, 1-2 regional tailoring of, 7-8, 10-11, 54, 55 in San Diego, 47-51 source control, 2, 55-56 treatment technologies, 4, 27-28 see also Municipal wastewater treatment plants; Municipal wastewater treatment systems Wastewater constituents examples and impacts, 23-26 high-priority, 4-5, 26-27 low-priority, 6-7 medium priority, 5-6 sources, 23 Wastewater disposal system choice of components, 282-285 computer integration of field and laboratory, 287 design steps, 277-278 modeling water and sediment quality, 280-282 for nutrients, 286-287 for particles, 286 for toxicants, 286 water-quality-driven approach, 278-280, 285-287 Wastewater treatment energy requirement, 28 improved processes, 33 institutional setting, 394-395 land-area requirements, 28 levels of, 9-10, 27-28, 56-61 nutrients from, 8, 55, 179-180 plants, 131; see also Municipal wastewater treatment plants sludge from, 28 standards for, 3 undercontrol and overcontrol, 156-158 and water quality, 28 see also Disinfection methods; Municipal wastewater treatment systems; Secondary treatment; Toxic chemicals used in treatment Water conservation and reclamation, 2, 28, 55-56, 158, 318 benefits, 8-9, 56 and pollutant concentration, 8 San Diego Clean Water Program, 49 uses of reclaimed water, 61 see also Recycling and reuse Water pollution control in New York Harbor, 34, 36-39 successes, 34-41 Water quality assessment methods, 107 criteria, 106, 107 defining, 121

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas engineering systems design based on, 126, 129-130 in kelp beds, 117 median effective concentration, 107 median lethal concentration, 107 model, 96 monitoring, 69, 84, 208 no observed effect level, 107 nonnumerical description of, 126 objectives, regional variation in, 7-8 predicting, 280-282 problems, 9, 56 progress in improving, 1, 3-4, 20, 32-41 in San Diego Bay, 47 standards, 31, 107, 117, 121-126 wastewater treatment technology and, 28 Water quality management command-and-control, 398-404 economic instruments, 404-413 education and, 417-424 growth management and, 413-417 problems and remedial actions, 122-125 regional planning failures under CWA, 161 Water quality policies adequacy, 1, 20, 31 education strategies, 418-421 fragmentation of issues, 394-395 jurisdictional complexity and, 395-396 public expectations and support, 42 Water resource management importance of, 61 regional planning, 145, 396, 415-416 see also Water conservation Water shortages, 49 Weirs, 28 Wetlands, 115, 119 artificial, 383 Whipworms, 204 Wisconsin, Milwaukee plan for CSOs and sanitary sewer overflows, 65 World Bank, 76 World Health Organization, 98 Y Yersinia sp., 208, 209, 215 Z Zooplankton, 183, 185

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Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas Other Recent Reports of the Water Science and Technology Board Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Predicting Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty (1993) Sustaining Our Water Resourc es: Proceedings, WSTB Symposium (1993) Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992) Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy (1992) Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries (1991) Preparing for the Twenty-First Century: A Report to the USGS Water Resources Division (1991) Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (1991) A Review of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Pilot Program (1990) Ground Water and Soil Contamination Remediation: Toward Compatible Science, Policy, and Public Perception (1990) Managing Coastal Erosion (1990) Ground Water Models: Science and Regulatory Applications (1990) Irrigation Induced Water Quality Problems: What Can Be Learned from the San Joaquin Valley Experience? (1989) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242