Anoxia, 177

causes, 96, 102, 179, 181, 194

in continental shelf waters, 102

defined, 178

nitrogen loadings and, 192

Apalachicola Bay, 183, 184, 188-190

Arsenic, 6, 25, 99

Ascaris sp., 204

Astrovirus, 205

Atmospheric deposition, 2, 116

modeling and control, 138-139

of nutrients, 8, 55

of PCBs, 138

and urban runoff, 369

Aureococcus anophagefferens, 182

Australia, 180, 187

B

Bacteria, 26

and closure of shellfish beds and beaches, 33

in coastal waters, 210, 211

enterococcus levels, 117, 118, 121, 127

examples, 99

indicator, see Coliform bacteria

survival patterns, 67, 135

transport, 135

wastewater-associated, 207-208

waterborne diseases, 207-208

Baltic Sea, 178

algal bed dieback, 180

algal blooms in, 193, 194

anoxic bottom waters, 179

cyanobacteria blooms, 182, 187

nutrient limitation, 183, 188, 189

Barataria Bay, 71, 184, 190

Bay ecosystems, 53, 54, 56, 115

Beaches

aesthetic concerns, 108

closed, 4-5, 33, 43

pathogens detected at, 211

plastics and floatables on, 108

safety concerns, 92

Santa Monica Bay, 115-116

trash/marine debris on, 5, 6, 27

Benthic

accumulation of organic matter, 123

algae, 191

algal mats, 187

communities, 109

ecosystems, 36, 179

invertebrates, 178

release of contaminants, 124

Bioaccumulation

of metals, 5, 123

of pesticides, 139

of toxic compounds, 25, 104, 138

Biochemical oxygen demand, 34, 58

concerns associated with, 10, 23, 56

deep-ocean discharge and, 60

definition and impacts, 24, 179

inputs to estuaries and coastal seas, 179

monitoring, 150

nutrients and, 6, 8, 10, 26, 54, 59

outfall design and, 6

priority assigned to, 5, 27

removal capabilities of treatment systems, 46-47, 57, 58, 59, 61

secondary treatment, 9-10, 46-47, 58, 59

standards, 32, 43

Biogeochemical cycles, 184-185

Biological treatment processes

activated sludge treatment, 58

advances in, 311-312

biological aerated filters, 311

chemically enhanced primary plus, 57, 60, 61, 321-322

conventional primary plus, 57, 60, 61, 321, 329-331

high-biomass, 312

nitrogen discharges from, 59

plus nutrient removal, 57

secondary, 46-47, 49, 57, 158

sequencing batch reactors, 311-312

Biosolids (see Sludge)

Boating traffic, 2, 22, 29, 108

Boston Harbor

cleanup, 20, 42-47

coliform bacteria, 65

CSO discharges into, 43, 44, 65, 158



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement