system does not exist. Some work has been done, particularly in the area of human uses of water resources, but it is significantly incomplete, especially with respect to the full range of human values, the consequences of health effects, and ecological values. Thus, there is no comprehensive set of economic tools capable of developing and implementing an optimal coastal management strategy that meets society's goals.

In the absence of such a capability, reversing trends of degradation in an effective and efficient manner is more difficult. It requires, at the least, that society formulate a clear vision of the coast's future and identify the tasks necessary to achieve that vision. The concept of integrated coastal management (ICM) is a starting point for that vision. This chapter addresses the conceptual principles and methodology for ICM. Chapter 4 addresses specific applications of the principles and methodology outlined here. ICM is associated here with two general objectives: 1) to restore and maintain the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems and 2) to maintain important human values and uses associated with those resources.

Recently, in Reducing Risks: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Science Advisory Board, explored the problem of making its management programs more relevant to ecological imperatives. It concluded that the ''EPA should target its environmental protection efforts on the basis of opportunities for the greatest reduction of risk" and the "EPA should attach as much importance to reducing ecological risk as it does to reducing human health risk" (EPA 1990). In a substantial sense the methodology for integrated coastal management set forth in this report is a further step in the general direction proposed in the EPA report.

The principles and methodology set forth are a further elaboration of work done by others (see bibliography at the end of this chapter). There appear to be few examples of where these ideas have been systematically applied in the conscious effort to protect coastal resources. Nonetheless, there are several examples where the concepts have, to some extent, been applied over time. Notable in this regard are the examples of the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay. Some detail about one aspect of the Chesapeake Bay Program—the experience in controlling nutrients—is presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides a discussion of the benefits and barriers associated with the implementation of ICM and provides some recommendations for implementation. The evolution of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement from 1978 through 1987 consisted of an iterative planning and implementation process. As a result, toxics joined nutrients as pollutants of concern and the management area was expanded and now includes the entire watershed. A more complex understanding of pollution sources and prevention strategies in the Great Lakes has evolved and the mechanisms for governance have become more sophisticated.

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