Human Expectations. Societal values and needs with respect to a particular coastal system also vary from region to region. Often there are conflicts among various interests, and changes in values and needs will occur over time. Initial management steps must seek to understand the existing range of expectations. This understanding will further contribute to an appreciation of those elements of the natural systems that are important for protection.
Once important environmental processes and human expectations have been identified, the anthropogenic conditions that threaten their maintenance can be determined.
It is important to address environmental problems at the scale on which they occur. Thus, integrated coastal management must be based on adoption of a relevant environmental domain with appropriate aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric components. The starting point for defining the geo-