wells were increasing. More than 25 percent of the state's population was served by water with concentrations of nitrate above 22 milligrams per liter (as NO3). Similar increases were noted in detections of pesticides in public water supplies; about 27 percent of the population was periodically consuming low concentrations of pesticides in their drinking water. The situation in private wells which tend to be shallower than public wells may have been even worse.

Defining the Question

Most prominent among the sources of ground water contamination were fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture. Other sources included urban use of lawn chemicals, industrial discharges, and landfills. The pathways of ground water contamination were disputed. Some interests argued that contamination occurs only when a natural or human generated condition, such as sinkholes or agricultural drainage wells, provides preferential flow to underground aquifers, resulting in local contamination. Others suggested that chemicals applied routinely to large areas infiltrate through the vadose zone, leading to widespread aquifer contamination.

Mandate, Selection, and Implementation

In response to growing public concern, the state legislature passed the Iowa Ground water Protection Act in 1987. This landmark statute established the policy that further contamination should be prevented to the "maximum extent practical" and directed state agencies to launch multiyear programs of research and education to characterize the problem and identify potential solutions.

The act mandated that the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) assess the vulnerability of the state's ground water resources to contamination. In 1991, DNR released Ground water Vulnerability Regions of Iowa, a map developed specifically to depict the intrinsic susceptibility of ground water resources to contamination by surface or near-surface activities. This assessment had three very limited purposes: (1) to describe the physical setting of ground water resources in the state, (2) to educate policy makers and the public about the potential for ground water contamination, and (3) to provide guidance for planning and assigning priorities to ground water protection efforts in the state.

Unlike other vulnerability assessments, the one in Iowa took account of factors that affect both ground water recharge and well development. Ground water recharge involves issues related to aquifer contamination; well development involves issues related to contamination of water supplies in areas where sources other than bedrock aquifers are used for drinking water. This



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