assessments, action is required from scientists and managers alike. Managers and policy makers should recognize the scientific limitations and expect less from current vulnerability assessments. To reduce uncertainty in assessments, managers will have to provide adequate support for the development and evaluation of improved approaches and data collection. Similarly, scientists should recognize manager's needs for assessments and focus their energies on responding to the uncertainties, high costs, and high levels of expertise needed. In addition, scientists should seek better methods for communicating underlying uncertainties to managers who may not have extensive technical training. Better communication among scientists and managers should surely improve the development of useful and valid vulnerability assessments and the soundness of policies informed by them.