Index

A

Abzymes, 89, 98

Academic research, see University research

Adhesives, 90

Adsorption, 59

Aerobic microorganisms, 70

Affinity, 20, 59-60

Agricultural applications, 72, 73-74, 81-82, 93

see also Pesticides;

Plants

AIDS, 87

Air pollution, 95

Algae, 67, 74, 91

Amplification, 62

Animals, 72, 74

transgenic, 63, 90-91

see also Mammalian host systems

Antibiotics, 14, 61-62

Antibody engineering, 62, 89, 91

Approval, government, see Regulation and approval

Arsenate, 27

Automation technologies, 39, 59, 62, 65-66

Azadirachtin, 67

B

Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), 67

Bacteria, 58, 61, 73

Baculovirus, 86-87

Bioaugmentation, 70

Biodegradation systems, 69, 70, 95, 97-98

Biohydrometallurgy, 72, 74

Biological weapons, 98

Biomass, see Cellulosic products;

Ethanol

Biopharmaceuticals, see Pharmaceuticals

Bioprocess engineering, definition of, 1, 9, 45-46

Biopulping, 24, 25

Biopulp International, France, 25

Bioreactor engineering, 4-5, 68-69, 95, 99-100



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OCR for page 115
Putting Biotechnology to Work Bioprocess Engineering Index A Abzymes, 89, 98 Academic research, see University research Adhesives, 90 Adsorption, 59 Aerobic microorganisms, 70 Affinity, 20, 59-60 Agricultural applications, 72, 73-74, 81-82, 93 see also Pesticides; Plants AIDS, 87 Air pollution, 95 Algae, 67, 74, 91 Amplification, 62 Animals, 72, 74 transgenic, 63, 90-91 see also Mammalian host systems Antibiotics, 14, 61-62 Antibody engineering, 62, 89, 91 Approval, government, see Regulation and approval Arsenate, 27 Automation technologies, 39, 59, 62, 65-66 Azadirachtin, 67 B Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), 67 Bacteria, 58, 61, 73 Baculovirus, 86-87 Bioaugmentation, 70 Biodegradation systems, 69, 70, 95, 97-98 Biohydrometallurgy, 72, 74 Biological weapons, 98 Biomass, see Cellulosic products; Ethanol Biopharmaceuticals, see Pharmaceuticals Bioprocess engineering, definition of, 1, 9, 45-46 Biopulping, 24, 25 Biopulp International, France, 25 Bioreactor engineering, 4-5, 68-69, 95, 99-100

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Putting Biotechnology to Work Bioprocess Engineering Bioregenerative life-support systems, see Life-support systems Bioremediation, 4, 8, 23, 45, 69, 70-72, 91, 95, 98 Biosensor technologies, 39-40 Bioseparation, see Separation Biotechnology in a Global Economy, 21, 70 Blood cells, 90 C Canada, 72, 74 Carbohydrates, 99 see also Fermentation; Starches Carbon dioxide (CO2), 92 ''Cartapip'' fungal inoculum, 25 Catalytic enzymes, 67, 89, 92 Cell cultures, 39, 96 insect, 86-87 plant, 68, 93-94 transplantation of, 88-90 Cell sorting, 99 Cellulosic products, 23-24, 25-26, 81 see also Ethanol Chemicals, industrial, 3, 24, 50, 66-68, 91 research needs, 4, 68-69 sales, 66, 67 Chemical weapons, 98 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, 57 Chromatography, 14, 59, 60 Chymosin, 93 Clinton Corn Processing Co., 27 Clonal propagation, 94-95 Coal and coal conversion products, 26, 91 Committee on Life Sciences and Health, FCCSET, 33-34, 82 Competitive grant programs, 7, 80 Competitiveness, 10-12 international, 1-2, 5, 6, 11, 48, 85 Composting, 69 Computer-assisted design, 59, 65 Cooperative education programs, 7, 78-79 Copper leaching, 26 Corn, 23, 24, 26, 27-29, 31, 81 Costs, see Economics of production; Pricing Coupled synthesis gas, 29 Cross-disciplinary research, see Multidisciplinary research Cyanobacteria, 67 D Deliberate release, 72 Department of Agriculture, 81-82 Department of Defense, 97-98 Department of Energy, 81-82, 97 Design integration, 100 Detergents, 67 Developing countries, 98-99 DNA, see Polymerase chain reaction; Recombinant DNA Drugs, see Pharmaceuticals Dry milling, 24, 26 E Economics of production, 10-12, 13-14, 30, 31-32, 47, 84 mining, 74 pharmaceuticals, 19, 65 specialty products, 68-69 see also Investment in enterprise; Pricing; Sales of biotechnology products; Scaleup to production Education, see Training and education; University research Eli Lilly and Co., 17, 18 Embryogenesis, 94-95 Engineering Research Center Initiative, NSF, 7-8, 31, 78 Enhanced oil recovery, 26, 29-30, 74-75 Environmental applications, 4, 10, 23, 50, 69-75, 95 military sites, 97-98 research needs, 5, 8, 71, 75, 82, 91 training specialties, 80 Environmental Protection Agency, 70-71

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Putting Biotechnology to Work Bioprocess Engineering Enzymes, 24-28 passim, 62, 67, 69, 89, 92 Equipment engineering, 79 Erythropoietin (EPO), 18-19 Escherichia coli, 39, 51, 55-58 passim, 62, 81-82, 93 Ethanol, 24-25, 28-29, 81-82, 92 Europe, 2, 6, 41-44, 48, 95 Exchange programs, 6, 40 Extremophiles, 91 Exxon Corp., 70-71 F Fab fragments, 56, 62 Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 2, 33-34, 82 Federal government, laboratories, 7-8, 30-31 R&D support, 2, 5, 6, 7, 33-34, 46-48, 82, 83, 100 regulation, 11-12, 14, 40, 71, 82, 100 see also Department of Agriculture; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency; Food and Drug Administration; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Institutes of Health; National Science Foundation Fermentation, 24, 26, 28, 61-62, 68-69 Fiber, see Cellulosic products Filamentous fungi, 58 Filtration technologies, 59, 95 Food and Drug Administration, 40, 47-48 Food and feed industry, 3, 93 Formulation of products, 63-64 Fraunhofer institutes, Germany, 42-43 Fuels, 3, 92, 93 see also Ethanol Fungi, 24, 25, 58, 61 Fusion proteins, 59-60 G Gene expression, 51, 55-56, 58, 61, 62, 86 Generic applied research, 4-5 industrial products, 30-31 pharmaceuticals, 21-22, 81 Genetech, Inc., 16, 17, 18 Gene therapy, 87, 88 Germany, 41-43, 68 Global competitiveness, see Competitiveness Glucose isomerase, 13, 14, 27-28 Glycobiology, 60-61, 87 Government-industry relations, 45-48, 83 in Japan, 38-39 see also Regulation and approval Grants, competitive programs, 7, 80 Greenhouse effect, 92 H Heat-shock proteins, 57 Heterologous proteins, 55-61 passim, 64 High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 14, 24, 26, 27-28 Host systems, 51, 55-58 Hot start, 62 Human growth hormone, 18, 51 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 87 Human-resources development, see Staffing; Training and education Hybridoma technology, 16, 17-19, 57 Hybrid proteins, 59-60 Hydrocarbons, 3 I Immunoassays, 64-65, 93 Inclusion bodies, 56-57 Industrial chemicals, see Chemicals, industrial Insect-cell cultures, 86-87 Insulin, recombinant, 14, 17-18

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Putting Biotechnology to Work Bioprocess Engineering Integrated manufacturing systems, 65-66, 100 Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Grant Program, NIH, 7, 78 International competitiveness, see Competitiveness Investment in enterprise, 12, 31, 84, 85 Isolation processes, 58, 88-89 Israel, 68 J Japan, 27, 38-41, 42, 94 global competitiveness, 2, 6, 48 L Laboratories, government, 7-8, 30-31 weapons, 97-98 Leaching and leachates, 26, 70, 72, 74 Licensing, 40, 85 Life-cycle environmental responsibility, 95 Life Sciences Division, NASA, 97 Life-support systems, space applications, 32-33, 96-97 "Liftase" pulp drainage aid, 25 Lignocellulose, 23-24, 25-26, 81 Liquid formulations, 63-64 Livestock, 63, 72, 74 Lymphocytes, 89 Lyophilized proteins, 63-63 M Mammalian host systems, 57, 61, 87, 99 Mammary gland system, transgenic, 63 Mars colony, 32 Medicine, see Pharmaceuticals Metabolic engineering, 61–62 Metals recovery, 26, 72, 74 Microalgae, 67, 74, 91 Microbial processes, 81-82, 91 bioremediation, 70-72 coal conversion, 26 enhanced oil recovery, 29, 74-75 mining, 72, 74 Microgravity environments, 96, 97 Microgravity Science and Applications Division, NASA, 97 Miles Laboratory, 43 Military bases, hazardous waste on, 97-98 Milk bioprocessing, 63 Mineralization, 70 Mining, 26, 72, 74 Molecular chaperones, 57 Monoclonal antibodies, 62, 89, 91 Moon colony, 32 Moths, 86 Multidisciplinary research, 5, 7, 12, 20-21, 77-78 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 33, 97 National Cancer Institute, 67 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 7, 78 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 21-22, 81 Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Training Grant Program, 7, 78 National Research Center for Biotechnology, Germany, 43 National Science Foundation (NSF), 47, 81 Engineering Research Center Initiative, 7-8, 31, 78 Nonrenewable-resource conversion, 23, 26 research needs, 30-32 Nucleotides and nucleotide analogues, 87, 99 O Oil, see Petroleum Oligosaccharides, 60 Organ transplants, see Transplants Organic gases, 95

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Putting Biotechnology to Work Bioprocess Engineering P Pacific yew tree, 68 Paper, see Pulp and paper Penicillin, 13, 14, 15 Personnel, see Staffing; Training and education Pesticides, 67, 73, 87, 93 Petroleum, 26, 29-30 enhanced recovery, 26, 29-30, 74-75 ethanol industry and, 28-29 spills, 70-71 Pharmaceuticals, 3, 14, 16-20, 33, 47-48, 50-64, 87, 94 approved bioproducts (list), 52-53, 55 pricing, 19-20 research needs, 4, 20-22, 64-66, 80-81 sales, 10, 16, 20, 51, 52-53 training specialties, 80 Phototropic microalgae, 67 Plants, 67, 72, 73-74, 91 cell cultures, 68, 93-94 somatic embryogenesis, 94-95 Polarity of cells, 88, 90 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 62 Polypeptide tails, 59-60 Polysaccharides, 29, 68 Pricing, 19-20, 30, 35, 66 Protein engineering, 17-19, 59-60, 64 Protein pharmaceuticals, 2, 16-20, 47-48, 51, 55-64, 81 Proteolysis, 56 Protozoa, 67 Pulp and paper, 24, 25 Purification technologies, 4, 47, 58-60, 65, 81 Q Quality control and testing, 4, 5, 47 R Radioisotopes, 98 Recombinant DNA (rDNA), 13, 63 pharmaceutical applications, 17-19, 20, 43, 51, 55-56 Regulation and approval, 11-12, 14, 40, 71, 82, 100 pharmaceuticals, 51, 52-53, 55, 63, 91 Renewable-resource conversion, 3, 23-26, 91-93, 98-99 research needs, 30-32, 81-82 training specialties, 80 Repligen-Sandoz Research Corp., 25 Research and development, 4-5, 30-31, 80-82 environmental applications, 5, 8, 71, 75, 82, 91 equipment, 79 federal support, 2, 5, 6, 7, 33-34, 46-48, 82, 83, 100 industrial chemicals, 4, 68-69 in Germany, 42-43 in Japan, 38-41 nonrenewable resources, 30-32 pharmaceuticals, 4, 20-22, 64-66, 80-81 renewable resources, 30-32, 81-82 specialty bioproducts, 4, 68-69 training, 6, 7, 12, 44-45, 47 see also Technology transfer Ribozymes, 89 Roche Holdings, Switzerland, 16 S Safety evaluation, 63, 91 Sales of biotechnology products, 44 chemicals, 66, 67 corn-based, 26 pharmaceuticals, 10, 16, 20, 51, 52-53 Scaleup to production, 14-16, 31, 43, 65 Seeds, artificial, 94-95 Separation, 4, 28, 47, 58, 59, 65, 80, 81, 97 Sewage treatment, 69, 72 Soil treatment, 70 Somatic embryogenesis, 94-95 Space applications, 3, 32-33, 96-97

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Putting Biotechnology to Work Bioprocess Engineering Specialty bioproducts, 3, 30, 50, 66-67, 91 research needs, 4, 68-69 Stability of products, 64, 65 Staffing, 33, 46 Standards, manufacturing, 5 Starches, 24 Streptomyces, 58, 61 Sugars, see Fermentation; Glucose isomerase Surface cultures, 81 Synthesis gas, 29 T Taq DNA polymerase, 62 Tax incentives, 84 Taxol, 68, 94 Team research, see Multidisciplinary research Technology transfer, 31, 83-85 in Japan, 39 Therapeutic drugs, see Pharmaceuticals Tissue engineering, 63, 89-90, 91, 96 Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), 18-19 Tobacco, 91 Training and education, 6, 7, 12, 44-45, 47, 77-80, 99 in Germany, 41-43 in Japan, 40 Transgenic organisms, 63, 90-91 Transplants, of cells, 88-90 of organs, 88, 89-90 of transgenic animal tissue, 63, 91 U Ultrafiltration, 59 University research, 2, 12, 44-45, 78-79, 84-85 cooperation with industry, 31, 40, 78-79, 83, 84-85 in Germany, 42-43 in Japan, 40 Uranium, 74 U.S. government, see Federal government V Vaccines, 53, 73, 98 Valdez oil spill, 70-71 Viruses, 73, 86-87 W Waste treatment, 26, 69, 70-72, 93 Weapons laboratories, 97-98 Wet milling, 23, 24, 26, 27-29 X Xylose, 27-28, 92 Xylose isomerase, 27-28 Y Yeast host systems, 58, 61 Yew tree, 68