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in the Mexican copyright law for the Mexican software industry. The Mexican software industry association sought modifications of Mexican copyright law to improve the protection of software, and in July 1991, those modifications were approved. In Mr. Medina Mora's view, strengthening intellectual property protection is a strategic move for developing countries such as Mexico, a move that can build the competitiveness of a nation's industries and gain the trust of foreign investors.

W.L. Keefauver describes how AT&T's use of intellectual property evolved over the life of the company. In the early years, AT&T used patents as entrepreneurial assets to establish markets. Later, as a heavily regulated enterprise, it used IPRs to obtain "freedom of design" through cross-licensing with other firms. With divestiture and the globalization of markets, AT&T has again entered international competition, and its IPR and licensing practices are being tailored to specific competitive strategies. This trend seems likely to continue, and IPRs in software have the potential of becoming the most important of all.

The following chapters illustrate that one of the principal effects of recent changes in the nature of scientific and technological advance has been to increase the importance of IPRs to organizations involved with technology, whether they be in industry, academia, or government. They also show that there are differences of opinion on the appropriate and adequate protection of intellectual property and on whether the present IPR system is functioning adequately, and that those differences do not correspond simply to sectoral, industrial, or national lines.



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