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APPENDIX B
Biographies of Contributors

Albert R.C. Westwood, Conference Chairman

Albert R.C. Westwood is Vice President—Research and Technology for Martin Marietta Corporation. He received his B.Sc., Ph.D., and D.Sc. degrees in metallurgy and materials science from the University of Birmingham, England, and joined Martin Marietta Laboratories (then RIAS) in 1958, becoming its Director in 1974. Subsequently, he became Corporate Director of R&D in 1984, Vice President—Research and Development in 1987, and Vice President—Science in 1990. He assumed his present position in August 1990.

Dr. Westwood has published some 120 technical papers, mostly concerned with environment-sensitive mechanical behavior or R&D management, and his scientific contributions have been recognized by a variety of awards and fellowships, including the Beilby Gold Medal (1970), fellow of the Institute of Physics (1967), of the American Society for Materials International (ASMI) (1974), of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (1986), and of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS) (1990); and election to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (1980) and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (1989). He has also served as Campbell Memorial Lecturer (ASMI, 1987), Henry Krumb Lecturer (American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME, 1988), and American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Distinguished Lecturer (1989-1990).



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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology APPENDIX B Biographies of Contributors Albert R.C. Westwood, Conference Chairman Albert R.C. Westwood is Vice President—Research and Technology for Martin Marietta Corporation. He received his B.Sc., Ph.D., and D.Sc. degrees in metallurgy and materials science from the University of Birmingham, England, and joined Martin Marietta Laboratories (then RIAS) in 1958, becoming its Director in 1974. Subsequently, he became Corporate Director of R&D in 1984, Vice President—Research and Development in 1987, and Vice President—Science in 1990. He assumed his present position in August 1990. Dr. Westwood has published some 120 technical papers, mostly concerned with environment-sensitive mechanical behavior or R&D management, and his scientific contributions have been recognized by a variety of awards and fellowships, including the Beilby Gold Medal (1970), fellow of the Institute of Physics (1967), of the American Society for Materials International (ASMI) (1974), of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (1986), and of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS) (1990); and election to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (1980) and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (1989). He has also served as Campbell Memorial Lecturer (ASMI, 1987), Henry Krumb Lecturer (American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME, 1988), and American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Distinguished Lecturer (1989-1990).

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology His current professional responsibilities include: Trustee of AIME; Past President of TMS-AIME; Past President of the Industrial Research Institute; Member of the Board of Directors of Martin Marietta Energy Systems; Member of the Visiting Committee to the National Institute for Standards and Technology; Member of the National Critical Technologies Panel (Office of Science and Technology Policy); Chairman of Advisory Panel to the National Science Foundations's (NSF) Directorate on Science, Technology and International Affairs; and Chairman of the National Research Council's (NRC) Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. James E. Armstrong III James E. Armstrong III, Senior Partner, Armstrong, Nikaido, Marmelstein, Murray and Kubovcik, Washington, D.C., has been involved in the practice of patent law for more then 36 years. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering in 1951 from Michigan State University and an LL.B. from the University of Maryland School of Law in 1957. He was registered to practice before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in 1956 and was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1957 and the District of Columbia bar in 1970. Mr. Armstrong is fluent in Japanese and has spent two to four months in Japan each year for the past 21 years on patent and licensing matters. Mr. Armstrong is a member of the American Bar Association, the American Intellectual Property Association, the U.S. Trademark Association, the Licensing Executives Society, and the American Group of the Association Internationale pour la Protection de la Propriete Industrielle (AIPPI). His publications include The Japanese—Successful Patent, Know-How and Joint Venture Relations, with Levine, Richman and Seward, Patent Resources Group (1973, 1974), The Thought Process—Essentials for the Drafting of U.S. Patent Specifications and Claims, by Armstrong and Nikaido, Japan Group AIPPI (1975); Revised Editions (1980), (1986) Fundamentals of Technology Transfer, Pegan and Armstrong (1991) and several articles in les Nouvelles (the Journal of the Licensing Executives Society) on the cultural impact of Japanese-American licensing negotiations. Mr. Armstrong has served as a lecturer and instructor with the Patent Resources Group (Directed by Professor Irving Kayton of George Mason University) since 1973. He has also been a guest lecturer at the World Trade Institute in New York on antitrust and licensing matters on several occasions since 1978, and has presented several lectures and workshops at meetings of the Licensing Executives Society. Over the past 21 years, Mr. Armstrong has given more than 100 lectures and seminars (usually in Japanese) to numerous Japanese corporations, Japanese patent associations, and professional societies on a wide variety of topics relating to patents and

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology licensing. During 1986-1989, Mr. Armstrong was a guest lecturer at Peking University and several other Chinese universities, where he taught fundamentals of technology transfer. John A. Armstrong John Armstrong, IBM Vice President, Science and Technology, was born in Schenectady, New York, in 1934. He received an A.B. in physics from Harvard College in 1956, and his Ph.D. in 1961 from Harvard University for research in nuclear magnetic resonance at high pressures. He then, as a Research Fellow, switched to lasers and nonlinear optics, working with Professor N. Bloembergen. In 1963 he joined IBM Research as a Staff Member. He spent 19671968 at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich and returned to Yorktown as Manager of Quantum Optics. Between 1976 and 1980, as Director of Physical Sciences, he was responsible for a major part of the physics, chemistry, and materials science at IBM Research. In 1980 he joined the IBM Corporate Technical Committee headed by the IBM Chief Scientist. In 1981 he was made manager of materials and technology development at the IBM East Fishkill development laboratory, working on advanced bipolar technology and associated packaging. In 1983 he returned to the Research Division as Vice President, Logic and Memory, in 1986 he was named Director of Research, and in 1987 was elected IBM Vice President and Director of Research. In May 1989 he was elected a member of the Corporate Management Board and named to his current position in which he is responsible for ensuring IBM's technological excellence and leadership in research. He also has management responsibility for the research division, technical strategy development, technical journals and professional relations, and technical personnel development. Dr. Armstrong is author or coauthor of more than 50 papers on the subjects of nuclear resonance, nonlinear optics, the statistical properties of laser light, picosecond pulse measurements, and the multiphoton laser spectroscopy of atoms. He was Chairman of the Advisory Committee for physics of the NSF. He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, a Fellow of the American Physical Society, a Fellow of the AAAS, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He is a member of the National Advisory Committee for Semiconductors and cochairman of its Working Group on Technology, a member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physics Visiting Committee, and a member of the Policy Board of the National Nanofabrication Facility. He is also a trustee of Associated Universities, Inc., and a member of the Policy Steering Committee of the Governor's Conference on Science and

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Engineering Education, Research and Development: Developing New York State's Action Plan for the 1990s. In 1990 he was elected to the Board of Overseers at Harvard University and to the Board of Advanced Network and Services, Inc. In 1987 Dr. Armstrong was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. In 1989 he was awarded the George E. Pake Prize of the American Physical Society. In 1990 he received an honorary Doctor of Science degree from the State University of New York at Albany. John H. Barton John H. Barton, the George E. Osborne Professor of Law at Stanford Law School is director of that school's International Center for Law and Technology. He teaches international business transactions, law and high technology, and international environmental law. He consults extensively to the international agricultural research community on intellectual property and biosafety regulatory questions in developing nation agricultural biotechnology. He organized a May 1992 meeting on Pacific Basin technology issues in the post-Uruguay Round world, in cooperation with the University of Hong Kong Law School. He is coauthor of a leading international business law casebook, The Regulation of International Business, and has published and spoken widely on biotechnology, genetic resources, and international technology transfer issues. His most recent writings include ''Catch-up Strategies for Technologically Proficient Developing Nations," presented at XVI Simposio Nacional de Pesquisa de Adminstracao em Ciencia e Tecnologia, in Rio de Janeiro in October 1991, and "Patenting Life," Scientific American 264:40 (March 1991). He served as a member of the NRC Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources and is now a member of the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. His undergraduate degree is from Marquette University (1958) and his law degree is from Stanford (1968). Arden L. Bement, Jr. Arden L. Bement Jr. is Vice President, Technical Resources of TRW, Inc. Before joining TRW in 1981, he was the Deputy Under Secretary for Defense for Research and Engineering. From 1976-1979 he was the Director of the Material Science Office for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Before that he held positions at General Electric, Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Bement serves on the Statutory Visiting Committee of the NIST

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Visiting Committees for Oak Ridge, Lawrence Livermore, and Argonne National Laboratories. He is a member of the Visiting Committees for MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and John Hopkins University, and of the Advisory Committees for the University of Michigan, Ohio State University, and Howard University. Dr. Bement has participated in a number of international bilateral exchanges including the U.S.-USSR Bilateral Exchange Program in Magnetohydrodynamics, and bilateral exchange programs with Japan, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and the United Kingdom. He has also served as an United Nations Scientific Advisor on Atomic Energy. He is the author or editor of four books and author of over 90 journal articles on material science, energy, and defense technology. He has received numerous awards including the Engineering Citation Award, University of California, Los Angeles; Distinguished Civilian Service Medal, U.S. Department of Defense; Outstanding Achievement Award, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; and the Outstanding Achievement Award, Colorado Engineering Council. Dr. Bement is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow in the American Society for Metals, a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society and a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists. Michael Borrus Michael Borrus is a Director of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy at the University of California, Berkeley; he teaches in the joint School of Engineering-Business program on the Management of Technology. A member of the California state bar, Dr. Borrus has worked on high technology and trade issues for the last decade. He regularly consults on technology policy and business strategy issues with various governments and firms in the United States, Asia, and Europe—including, most recently, the National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors. His recent works include The Highest Stakes: Technology, Economy and Security (Oxford University Press, 1991); Competing for Control, America's Stake in Microelectronics (Harper and Row, 1988); "High Technology in the Pacific Basin: Analysis and Policy Implications," a paper prepared for the U.S. State Department; and "Information Networks and Competitive Advantage: The Issues for Government Policy and Business Strategy (Brussels and Paris, EEC-OECD, September 1990). Paul A. David Paul A. David, professor of economics and professor of history, by courtesy, was appointed William Robertson Coe Professor of American Economic

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology History at Stanford University in 1977. He is also Director of Research for the High Technology Impact Program at the Center for Economic Policy Research at Stanford. He is an elected fellow of the International Econometrics Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and has served as Vice President and President of the Economic History Association. Paul David was born in New York City and was educated at the High School of Music and Art. He majored in economics as an undergraduate at Harvard College, where James Duesenberry was his honors thesis advisor and where, in 1956, he received an A.B. in economics Summa Cum Laude. After two years at Cambridge University as a Fulbright Scholar and research student under the supervision of Peter Mathias and R.C.O. Mathews, he returned to Harvard University for further graduate study in economics. There he became a member of Alexander Gerschenkron's Economic History Workshop. Joining the Stanford Faculty in 1961, he was promoted to the rank of Associate Professor of Economics in 1966 and Professor in 1970. Professor David, whose research and teaching have covered a wide range of subjects, is known internationally for his contributions to the development of the "new economic history," using the theoretical and statistical tools of modern economics to reconstruct and analyze economic life in the past, and studying its connections with the present. A recent paper on this theme is "So, How Would It Matter if 'History Mattered'?: Path-Dependence in Economics and Its Long-Run Implications," Working Papers in Economic History, (The Australian National University, July 1991; forthcoming in G.D. Snooks, ed., The Role of Longrun Analysis in Economics). Recent work in the area of the economics of technology and innovation include "Performance-Based Measures of Nuclear Reactor Standardization," (with G. Rothwell) CEPR Publication No. 247 (Stanford University, June 1991); "Learning from Disaster?: Changes in the Distribution of Operating Spell Durations in U.S. Nuclear Power Plants After Three Mile Island" (with G. Rothwell and R. Maude-Griffen) CEPR Technical Paper No. 248 (Stanford University, May 1991); "Technology Diffusion, Learning Spillovers, and the Optimal Duration of Patent-Based Monopoly" (with T.E. Olsen) CEPR-HTIP Working Paper (Stanford University, July 1991); forthcoming in International Journal of Industrial Organization. Robert E. Evenson Robert Evenson is a Professor of Economics at the Economic Growth Center at Yale University. After receiving a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1968, he was appointed an Associate Professor at Yale. In 1974, he became an Associate of the Agricultural Development Council of the Philippines. He returned to Yale as a full professor in 1977.

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Dr. Evenson has written and edited a number of books and monographs including Science for Agriculture (with W. Huffman; Iowa State University Press, 1991); Research and Productivity in Asian Agriculture (with Carl Pray et al.; Cornell University Press, 1991); Research, Productivity and Incomes in Brazilian Agriculture: A Study of the EMBRAPA Program (with E.R. da Cruz, J. Strauss, M.T.L. Barbosa, and D.Thomas; EMBRAPA, Brasilia, 1991); Science and Technology: Lessons for Development (editor, with Gustav Ranis; Westview Press, 1990). Claudio Frischtak Claudio Frischtak is a consultant to the World Bank based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Formerly principal industrial economist at the World Bank, he has a strong interest and has published in the areas of industrial policy, regulatory regimes and reform, technology strategies and institutional support systems. His most recent publications include "The Competitive Potential of National Producers of Equipment and Systems," in P. Evans, P. Tigre, and C. Frischtak, eds., Brazilian Informatics in Transition: Government Policy and International Trends in the 1990's (University of California Press, 1992); "Introduction" in C. Frischtak and R. Newfarmer, eds., Transnational Corporations: Market Structure and Industrial Performance (Routledge and Sons, 1992); "Banking Automation and Productivity Change: The Brazilian Experience," World Bank Industry Series Paper No. 46 (December 1991); "National Systems Supporting Technical Advance in Industry: The Brazilian Experience" (with C. Dahlman), in R. Nelson and N. Rosenberg, eds., National Technical Systems Supporting Industry (Oxford University Press, 1992); ''Specialization, Technical Change and Competitiveness in the Brazilian Electronics Industry," OECD Development Centre Technical Papers no. 27 (October 1990); "The Protection of Intellectual Property Rights and Industrial Development in Brazil," in F. Rushing and C. Ganz, eds., Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Science, Technology and Economic Performance: International Comparisons (Westview Press, 1990); "Competition Policies for Industrializing Economies." World Bank Policy and Research Series No. 7 (1989). Mr. Frischtak did his graduate work at the University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil) and at Stanford University and, while at the World Bank, was an adjunct Professor at the Department of Economics, Georgetown University (1987-1990). Morton David Goldberg Morton David Goldberg, a partner in the law firm of Schwab, Goldberg, Price and Dannay, has been a copyright practitioner, writer, and lecturer for 30 years, with increasing attention to software intellectual property. Mr.

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Goldberg is an Honorary Trustee and Past President of the Copyright Society of the United States and a former Section Chairman and Section Delegate of the American Bar Association's Section of Patent, Trademark and Copyright Law; and he has served on Boards of Directors of the Computer Law Association, U.S. Trademark Association, and American Intellectual Property Law Association. Mr. Goldberg's most recent paper (coauthored with David O. Carson) was prepared for the World Intellectual Property Organization and is entitled "Copyright Protection for Artificial Intelligence Systems." Eugene I. Gordon Eugene Gordon is a Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark, New Jersey. After receiving his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he joined AT&T Bell Labs where he worked until 1983, when he founded LYTEL, Inc. He later worked for Hughes Aircraft Co., and was the Chief Executive Officer and President of Photon Imaging Corporation from 1988 to 1990. He is an active member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Dr. Gordon participated in important demonstrations of the use of lasers in surgery, including the first use of argon lasers in treating diabetic retinopothy (blindness in diabetes). He is the co-inventor of a charge coupled device (CCD) and was leader of the laboratory doing the initial feasibility demonstrations of monochrome and color cameras, and line scanners using CCDs. He was the leader of the group that made the first visible helium neon lasers, the first continuous argon laser, the first acousto-optic light modulators and deflectors, and the first electron beam lithography machine for mask making, and that developed reliable laser diodes for submarine cable light wave systems. Jacques J. Gorlin Jacques J. Gorlin has been a consulting economist since October 1982. He provides advice and conducts economic analyses on a broad range of trade, high-technology, and intellectual property-related issues for Fortune 500 as well as smaller U.S. and foreign companies, and U.S. government agencies. Since March 1986 he has served as the economic consultant to the Intellectual Property Committee, an ad hoc coalition of 13 major U.S. corporations. Mr. Gorlin also serves as consultant to the Task Force on Intellectual Property of the President's Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations. He is a member of the Industrial Functional Advisory

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Committee on Intellectual Property Rights for Trade Policy Matters, a private sector group that advises the Secretary of Commerce and the U.S. Trade Representative on trade policy. Prior to entering the private sector, Mr. Gorlin served in a number of senior positions in both the executive and legislative branches of government. From 1972 to 1977, he was a senior international economist in the Department of the Treasury and in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, where he specialized in international trade and Middle East finance. As a senior economic advisor to Senator Jacob K. Javits (R-NY) from 1977 to 1981, he headed the Senator's economic staff and served as his liaison with the New York business and banking communities. In 1980-1981, Mr. Gorlin served on President Reagan's transition team, focusing on the State Department's economic functions; and in 1981, he assumed the position of Executive Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs. In 1982, he served as the Senior Economic Advisor to the Administrator of the Agency for International Development. Mr. Gorlin has lectured on the subject of international trade, high technology, and intellectual property rights before corporate, legal, and academic groups, and been a guest commentator on "All Things Considered" (National Public Radio) and other public affairs programs. He is the author of a Trade Based Approach for the International Copyright Protection for Computer Software. He has also contributed to numerous collections on intellectual property protection, including Global Competition: The Role of Intellectual Property and Intellectual Property Rights and Capital Formation in the Next Decade. Mr. Gorlin's monograph, "Foreign Trade and the Constitution," appeared in Foreign Policy and the Constitution (American Enterprise Institute). His articles have appeared in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal (European edition), the Journal of Commerce, and other international publications. Mr. Gorlin received an A.B. in history from Columbia College (1965), an M.A. from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (1967), and a Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins University (1971). Bryan Harris Bryan Harris is an independent consultant on European Economic Community (EEC) problems to commercial and professional firms and associations. He is an Adjunct Professor (EEC Law) and Member of the Executive Board, Franklin Pierce Law Center, in Concord, New Hampshire. He writes and lectures on legal, institutional and political aspects of the European Community. He is editor of the monthly newsletter (Monitor Press) "Competition Law in the European Communities." He is also the author of "The Law of

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology the European Communities" (supplement to Halshury's Laws, Third Edition); "The Common Agricultural Policy" (in Halsbury's Laws, Fourth Edition); Franchising in the European Community (Longmans); and Lobbying in the European Community (Macmillan, 1992). From 1973 to 1983 he was Head of the Intellectual Property Division in the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. He was the leader of the Community's delegation at the diplomatic conference on the revision of the Paris Convention for the protection of industrial property and was the initiator of the commission's Green Paper on Copyright, which was eventually published in 1988. William L. Keefauver William L. Keefauver is a consultant in intellectual property matters. He was formerly Vice President, Law, of AT&T with responsibility for all intellectual property legal matters and Vice President and General Counsel of AT&T Bell Laboratories. He was also a member of the board of directors of NCR until its recent merger with AT&T. He is currently a member of the Advisory Commission on Patent Law Reform in the U.S. Department of Commerce and a member of the advisory committee on intellectual property matters of the United States Trade Representative for the current round of General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs negotiations. Mr. Keefauver is President of the International Intellectual Property Association—the U.S. group of the AIPP-—and is a past chairman of the American Bar Association Section of Patents, Trademarks and Copyrights. He is also Vice President of the Board of Trustees of the McCarter Theatre in Princeton, N.J. Robert W. Lucky Robert Lucky is the Vice President of the Applied Research Group at Bellcore, Inc. and is a leading expert, author, and commentator on the state and future of data communications technology. He was formerly the Executive Director of the Communications Sciences Research Division at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he led AT&T's research into methods and technologies on future communications systems, including optical fiber technology, data networks, mobile communications, image processing, and broadband communications services. At Bell Labs, Dr. Lucky invented the "adaptive equalizer," a revolutionary technique for correcting distortion in telephone signals that is used in all high-speed data transmission today. He authored one of the most heavily cited textbooks on data communications and the popular book Silicon Dreams, which analyzed the ways humans and com-

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology puters deal with information. Dr. Lucky has also appeared on a number of network television shows, including Bill Moyers' Public Broadcasting Station program "A World of Ideas," to discuss the impacts of future technological advances. Edwin Mansfield Edwin Mansfield is Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Economics and Technology at the University of Pennsylvania. A graduate of Dartmouth College, he received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Duke University, as well as the Certificate and Diploma of the Royal Statistical Society. Before joining the University of Pennsylvania faculty, he taught at Carnegie-Mellon, Yale, Harvard, and the California Institute of Technology. He has been a consultant to many industrial firms and government agencies, and has been a member of the Advisory Committee of the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the AAAS's Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. He has been chairman of the Visiting Committee at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He received the Certificate of Appreciation from the U.S. Secretary of Commerce and in 1984 was appointed to the National Technology Medal Committee. Professor Mansfield has been elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Econometric Society, and of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and he has held Fulbright and Ford Foundation fellowships. He is a member of the board of directors of the American Productivity and Quality Center. He has served as U.S. chairman of the U.S.-USSR Working Party on the Economics of Science and Technology, and was the first U.S. economist to be invited to visit and lecture in the People's Republic of China under the 1979 Sino-American agreements. He is the author of 170 articles and 25 books. His textbooks on economics, microeconomics, and statistics have been adopted at more than 700 colleges and universities, and have been translated for use abroad. He has been an editor of six journals, including the Journal of the American Statistical Association, and is general editor of a series of books on technological change published by the University of Wisconsin Press. In 1984 he received the Publication Award of the Patent Law Association. George W. McKinney III George W. McKinney III is currently a Managing Director of Beacon Venture Management Corporation, a specialized firm focused on technology commercialization in new companies. He also is President and Chief

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Executive Officer of Environmental Quality Corporation, a new venture in the area of pollution prevention. Prior to joining Beacon Venture Management, Dr. McKinney was a Managing Partner at American Research & Development (ARD), the Boston based venture capital firm. While at ARD he was the founding President and Chief Executive Officer for American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC), an emerging company producing wires and coils from oxide superconductors. He continues to serve on the Board of Directors of AMSC. Dr. McKinney spent 18 years at Corning, Inc., prior to entering the venture capital field. At Corning he was responsible for corporate planning and business development and was Secretary to Corning's Management Committee. He also served as the primary business representative on Corning's internal patent committee. Dr. McKinney holds an S.B. in Industrial Management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a Ph.D. in Business from Stanford University. His article "Corporate Strategic Partnerships" regularly appears in Pratt's Guide to Venture Capital Sources. He has served on the Board of the New England Venture Capital Association. Antonio Medina Mora Icaza Antonio Medina Mora Icaza has worked as a programming analyst and researcher at numerous computing institutions. At present, he is the President of Company Grupo Telos, S.A. de C.V., a Mexican software firm. He is also the President of the Mexican Software Association, ANIPCO. He studied at the Faculty of Engineering and the Instituto de Investigación en Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistema at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM), the Carnegie Mellon University, and the Centre Mondial pour la Informatique et les Resources Humaines in Paris. He later returned to teach at UNAM, and has lead workshops on communications networks in Mexico and Chile. Mr. Medina Mora is also a participant in the negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Board of Intellectual Property and Telecommunications. Bruce D. Merrifield Bruce D. Merrifield is a graduate of Princeton University and holds masters and doctoral degrees in physical organic chemistry from the University of Chicago. Dr. Merrifield has since been in research, research administration, and new venture management, and during the Reagan administration was Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Productivity, Technology, and Innovation. Currently, he holds the Walter Bladstrom Chair for Professor of Management at the University of Pennsylvania Wharton School

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology of Business. He also is a consultant for the American Electronic Association and has been active with the Greater Minnesota Corporation. He is a director of a number of companies and, formerly, was Vice President of Technology and Venture Management for the Continental Group. At the Department of Commerce, Dr. Merrifield's office spearheaded landmark legislation to modify the antitrust laws (the Cooperative R&D Act of 1984) and the Technology Transfer Acts of 1984 and 1986. The office has developed the R&D Limited Partnership concept and has catalyzed the formation of more than 100 cooperative R&D consortia, involving over 1,000 companies, and many innovation centers in states and local communities. He is a former director and president of the Industrial Research Institute, and is both a former Trustee of the American Management Association and Chairman of its Research Council. Currently, he is a member of the Directors of Industrial Research, a member of Sigma XI Honorary Society, and is a Fellow of both the AAAS and the Institute of Chemists. Dr. Merrifield is a past member of the Advisory Board for the Binational Research and Development Foundation with Israel and is a current member of similar boards with India and France. He has served as Science Adviser to the Jordanian government and as a member of the Visiting Committee for Research at MIT and Boston University. Dr. Merrifield also has been active in community affairs as a former Chairman of the Board of Education, a trustee of several schools, as National Chairman of the Princeton Alumni Association, a board member of several foundations, and a member of the Executive Council of the Episcopal Church. David C. Mowery David Mowery is Associate Professor of Business and Public Policy in the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. He received his undergraduate and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Stanford University and was a postdoctoral research fellow at the Harvard Business School. Dr. Mowery taught at Carnegie-Mellon University, served as the Study Director for the Panel on Technology and Employment of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, and served in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative during 1988 as a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow. He has served on a number of NRC panels, including those on the Competitive Status of the U.S. Civil Aviation Industry, the Causes and Consequences of the Internationalization of U.S. Manufacturing, and the Federal Role in Civilian Technology Development. His research deals with the economics of technological innovation and with the effects of public policies on innovation; he has testified before congressional commit-

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology tees and served as an adviser for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, various federal agencies, and industrial firms. Dr. Mowery has written or edited several books, including Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth; Alliance Politics and Economics: Multinational Joint Ventures in Commercial Aircraft; Technology and Employment: Innovation and Growth in the U.S. Economy; The Impact of Technological Change on Employment and Economic Growth; and International Collaborative Ventures in U.S. Manufacturing. Deepak Nayyar Deepak Nayyar is a Professor of Economics at the Center for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India. He was a Rhodes Scholar from India at Oxford from 1967 to 1969, where he received his Ph.D. He was a Research Fellow at Oxford, and later a lecturer in Economics at the University of Sussex and a Professor of Economics at the Indian Institute of Management in Calcutta. He has recently completed one year and a half as the Chief Economic Advisor to the Government of India, and Secretary, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi. Deepak Nayyar has written several books, including Migration, Remittances and Capital Flows. The Indian Experience (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1992), and has edited Industrialisation in India: The Debate on Growth and Stagnation (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1992). John T. Preston John Preston is the Director of the Technology Licensing Office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As Director, he manages the patenting and licensing of the MIT, Lincoln Laboratory, and Whitehead Institute inventions and software. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Molten Metal Technology, Environmental Bioscience and Ergo Computing, Inc., and is Chairman of the Technology Transfer Advisory Panel for the Strategic Defense Initiative of the U.S. Department of Defense. Mr. Preston received his B.S. in physics from the University of Wisconsin and his M.B.A. from Northwestern University. His professional activities have been directed toward technology transfer, and specifically toward issues related to starting new high-technology companies. He has founded, or assisted in founding, companies that are currently worth several hundred million dollars. In addition, about 40 companies, mostly spin-offs of MIT, have been started, in part, through the efforts of the Technology Licensing Office during his tenure.

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Carlos Alberto Primo Braga C.A. Primo Braga is an economist with the International Trade Division of the World Bank. Before joining the World Bank, Mr. Primo Braga was an Assistant Professor of Economics at the University of Sao Paulo and Senior Researcher at the Fundacao Institute de Pesquisas Economicas (FIPE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Since 1988 he has also been a Visiting Professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, Washington, D.C. C.A. Primo Braga received his M. Engr. degree from the Institute Tecnologico de Aeronautics (ITA) in 1976. He also received a master's degree in Economics from the University of Sao Paulo in 1980, and an M.Sc. (1982) and a Ph.D. (1984) in Economics from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Since 1984, he has served as an economic consultant to many private companies, multilateral agencies, and government institutions in Brazil and abroad—including the World Bank and the Organization of American States. During 1987-1988, he was joint coordinator of the Brazilian team working on a Rockefeller Foundation project on the Multilateral Trade Negotiations and the Developing Countries. He has served as a member of the editorial board of several academic publications—such as Revista de Estudos Economicos, Informacoes FIPE, Revista Brasileira de Comercio Exterior, and Hemisfile—and as a member of the board of directors of the Fernand Braudel Institute of World Economics, Sao Paulo, Brazil. He has also testified before different committees of the U.S. Congress on U.S.-Latin American economic relations and his "op-ed" essays have appeared in Folha de Sao Paulo, O Globo, and O Estado de Sao Paulo among other newspapers. His main research interests encompass international economics (multilateral institutions, U.S.-Latin American economic relations, foreign debt, trade, and development); economics of science and technology; intellectual property rights; industry studies (steel, frozen concentrated orange juice); and economics of education. Dr. Primo Braga's main publications include Brasil e a Rodad Uruguai (coeditors C.L. Martone and E.R. Pelin; Sao Paulo, IPE/USP, forthcoming); "The Threat of a Cold Trade War and the Developing Countries," SAIS Review, 11:53-67 (Summer-Fall 1991); "The North-South Debate on Intellectual Property Rights," in Murray C. Smith, ed., Global Rivalry and Intellectual Property (Halifax: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1991); "II Pioano Collor o je Ambizione di una Riforma," Politica Internazionale, XIX:65-71 (January-February 1991); Chapters 3, 5, and 7 in Wolfgang E. Siebeck, ed., Strengthening Protection of Intellectual Property in Developing Countries: A Survey of Literature (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1990); ''U.S. Policies and the Prospects for Latin American Economic Integration," in W. Baer and D.V. Coes, eds., United States Policies and the

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Latin American Economics (New York: Praeger, 1990); "Brazil," in P.A. Mosserlin and K.P. Sauvant, eds., The Uruguay Round: Services in the World Economy (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1990); "U.S.-Latin American Trade: Challenges for the 1990's" Economic Impact, 67(2):51-55 (1989); "The Economics of Intellectual Property Rights and the GATT: A View from the South," Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 22:243264 (2/1989); Brasil 1980: Os Desafios da Crise Economica (coeditors: C.A. Roacca, M.C. Cacciamali, and M.C. de Castro; Sao Paulo, IPE/USP, 1988); ''Brazilian Public Sector Disequilibrium" (coauthors J.H. Welch and P.T.A. Andre) World Development 15:1045-1053 (August 1988). George B. Rathmann George B. Rathmann has been Chairman of the Board of Directors of the ICOS Corporation since January 1990, and President and Chief Executive Officer since September 1991. Dr. Rathmann previously held top executive positions at Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and at Amgen which he co-founded in 1981. During his tenure at Amgen as President, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman, two of the most significant biotechnology products were developed, EPO and G-CSF, hormones that control red and white blood cell growth, respectively, in bone marrow. Dr. Rathmann received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Princeton University. Pamela Samuelson Pamela Samuelson is a Professor of Law at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. She has written and spoken extensively on intellectual property and other legal issues affecting new technology fields such as computing. She is a Contributing Editor for Communications of the ACM, and author of its regular "Legally Speaking" column. During 1985 and 1986, she was the Principal Investigator of the Software Licensing Project at the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, which advised the Defense Department on needed changes to its software acquisition policy. She practiced law with the New York law firm Willkie Farr & Gallagher before becoming an academic. She is a 1976 graduate of Yale Law School and a 1971 graduate of the University of Hawaii at Honolulu. Robert M. Sherwood Robert M. Sherwood, an international business counselor based in Washington, has practiced law on Wall Street and as an international corporate attorney. He leads a multi-industry group of companies dedicated to better understanding of intellectual property protection in Brazil. He has spent 20

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology weeks since 1987 in Brazil and Mexico, researching the influence of intellectual property protection at the grass-roots level. His book titled Intellectual Property and Economic Development was published by Westview Press in 1990. A Brazilian edition will be published by Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo soon, and a Spanish edition is in preparation. He visited the Soviet Union in 1990 and will visit China this year to discuss intellectual property with officials there. He has conferred with World Bank officials regarding his research results over the last three years. He has published and lectured on Latin American debt, technology transfer, and intellectual property protection, and has taught at the graduate level. He holds degrees from Harvard College, Columbia University, and Harvard Law School. Eugene B. Skolnikoff Eugene B. Skolnikoff is Professor of Political Science at MIT. He was the Director of the Center for International Studies at MIT from 1972 until 1987. Originally educated as an electrical engineer at MIT, he studied economics and politics at Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship and later received a Ph.D. in political science at MIT. He served on the White House staff in the Science Adviser's Office in the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations, and was a Senior Consultant to President Carter's Science Adviser. In addition, he has been a consultant or adviser to several U.S. government departments, companies, and international organizations, and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, an American foundation. His work in government, research, and teaching has focused on science and public policy, especially the interaction of science and technology with international affairs, covering a wide range of industrial, military, space, economic, and futures issues. Otto A. Stamm Otto Stamm, a citizen of Switzerland, is Head of the Patent Department of CIBA-GEIGY AG, Basel, Switzerland. Dr. Stamm was born in Switzerland in 1930. He received his doctorate from the University of Basel. After further study abroad, he was appointed lecturer in the Department of Chemistry at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich in 1964. In 1967 he joined the Patent Department of J.R. Geigy AG in Basel, and in 1969 gained his patent attorney's diploma after further studies at the Law School of the University of Strasburg, France. Dr. Stamm is chairman of the Committee of Intellectual Property of the Swiss Federation of Commerce and Industry as well as a member of the working groups of many international industrial associations and is a mem-

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology ber of the Executive Committee of the Swiss Group of the International Association for the Protection of Industrial Property. Michiyuki Uenohara Michiyuki Uenohara was born on September 5, 1925, in Japan. He received a B.E. degree from Nihon University in 1949 and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Ohio State University in 1953 and 1956, respectively. After serving as a research assistant and instructor at both universities, he joined Bell Laboratories in 1957. In 1967, he returned to Japan and joined NEC Corporation and managed the Central Research Laboratories. He was elected a member of the Board of Directors in 1976 and was responsible for corporate R&D and engineering until June 1989. He is now Executive Adviser and holds the concurrent position of Chairman of the Board of Trustees, NEC Research Institute for Advanced Management Systems and Chairman, NEC Research Institute, Inc., in New Jersey. He is a Japanese member of the High Level Advisory Panel based on the U.S.-Japan agreement on cooperation in research and development in science and technology, and he serves on various government councils, including the Higher Education Council of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. He is a member of the Engineering Academy of Japan, a foreign associate of National Academy of Engineering in the United States, and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Science.