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Index

A

Academic research

bilateral science and technology agreements and, 199

commercialization of inventions, 74

in developing countries, 199-200

dissemination of results, 6, 9, 16

university views on IPR, 189, 190, 208-213

Adaptation of IPR to new technologies

biotechnology, 15, 19, 257-262, 266

case law processes, 270-271

computer programs, 250, 253-254, 255, 262-266

copyright law, 250, 264, 266

doctrinal issues in, 270-273, 281-282

evaluation of, 270-281

existing paradigms, 250-251

flexibility in, 190

fundamental issues, 249

implications of, 196-197, 281-283, 371

innovation rates and, 281

integrated information networks, 267-269

international dimension, 251-252, 260-262

patent law, 250

policy analysis needs, 253, 255, 259

reform processes, 253

rights-enforcing process, 275-281

rights-granting process, 273-281

semiconductor chips, 250, 255

small business, 252

sui generis approaches, 251, 271-272, 371

Adler, Reid, 327

Aerospace industry, sales losses due to weak IPR, 132

Agency for International Development (U.S.), 216

Alloys, 124, 125 n.11, 171

American Law Institute, 31

American Research and Development, 219

American Society for Composers, Authors, and Publishers, 278

American Superconductor, 217

Amgen, 320, 323, 325

AMP, Inc., 345

Andean Community countries, 84

Anell, Lars, 176

Animal rights, 260

Antidumping policy, 371

Antitrust policies, 16, 276, 343

Apple Computer Corp., 198, 289, 293 n.24

Arab Society for the Protection of Industrial Property, 185



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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Index A Academic research bilateral science and technology agreements and, 199 commercialization of inventions, 74 in developing countries, 199-200 dissemination of results, 6, 9, 16 university views on IPR, 189, 190, 208-213 Adaptation of IPR to new technologies biotechnology, 15, 19, 257-262, 266 case law processes, 270-271 computer programs, 250, 253-254, 255, 262-266 copyright law, 250, 264, 266 doctrinal issues in, 270-273, 281-282 evaluation of, 270-281 existing paradigms, 250-251 flexibility in, 190 fundamental issues, 249 implications of, 196-197, 281-283, 371 innovation rates and, 281 integrated information networks, 267-269 international dimension, 251-252, 260-262 patent law, 250 policy analysis needs, 253, 255, 259 reform processes, 253 rights-enforcing process, 275-281 rights-granting process, 273-281 semiconductor chips, 250, 255 small business, 252 sui generis approaches, 251, 271-272, 371 Adler, Reid, 327 Aerospace industry, sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Agency for International Development (U.S.), 216 Alloys, 124, 125 n.11, 171 American Law Institute, 31 American Research and Development, 219 American Society for Composers, Authors, and Publishers, 278 American Superconductor, 217 Amgen, 320, 323, 325 AMP, Inc., 345 Andean Community countries, 84 Anell, Lars, 176 Animal rights, 260 Antidumping policy, 371 Antitrust policies, 16, 276, 343 Apple Computer Corp., 198, 289, 293 n.24 Arab Society for the Protection of Industrial Property, 185

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Argentinian IPR, 73 agricultural research, 78 demand for, 78 international cooperation, 86 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 patent law, 84, 126 pharmaceutical protection, 327 plant breeders' rights, 96 ranking of, 69, 122, 123 and sales losses of U.S. industries, 133 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 Armstrong, James E., III, 152, 155-158, 184, 186, 402-403 Armstrong, John A., 190, 192-207, 212, 213, 217, 241, 371, 373, 403-404 Artificial intelligence, 15, 181, 263 Associacion Nacional de la Industria de Programas para Computadoras, 233, 234, 235 AT&T, 191, 213, 232, 236-240, 243, 340, 341, 345-347, 377-378 Audiotapes, copying, 10, 160-161 Australia, 91 Author's rights law, 235 B Bangladesh, 361 Barbaro, Daniele, 51 Barton, John, 251, 253, 256-283, 353, 404 Belarus, 73 Bell, Alexander Graham, 340 Bell Laboratories, 237, 340, 346, 348, 358, 377 Bement, Arden L., Jr., 388-390, 404-405 Biochips, 15, 204 Biotechnology adaptation of IPR to, 15, 19, 257-262, 266 agricultural, 259, 279 n.74 bacterium that produces ethanol from sugar, 77-78 border restrictions, 277 breadth of protection, 276-277 capital raised through public offerings, 322 case law, 254, 257 n.3, 258 nn.5 & 6, 260, 270, 271, 320, 323, 324 case study, 319-328 cloning of proteins, 257-258 commercialization role of IPRs, 254, 319-321, 325 defined, 257 delayed ripening of fruits, flowers, and vegetables, 102 n.13 delays in patents, 324 deposit of cultures, 9 in developing countries, 77-78, 95-96, 101-103 effects of protection, 103 exclusion under TRIPS, 177 experimental use exemption, 261 foreign investments in, 101 history of, 319-323 human, 259 international policy issues, 166, 258, 260-262, 270, 276-277, 323-324, 326-327 licensing of products, 102 litigation, 279 market value of stocks, 320, 322 oil-digesting organism, 320 patents, 6, 9, 92, 96, 102, 147, 163, 171, 194-195, 244, 254, 270, 271, 274-275, 278, 279, 281, 319-320, 323, 351 pharmaceuticals, 260, 275, 321, 324-325, 327 piracy of, 77 plant breeders' rights, 10, 95-96 policy analysis needs, 259 process claims, 323 recombinant DNA technique, 6 relevant forms of intellectual property, 9 role of small firms in, 252, 326, 328 sales, 321 scope of claims, 324 solutions to IPR issues, 259-262 special issues, 257-259 sui generis protection, 261, 270, 283 trade barriers, 282 trade secrets protection, 194-195 transgenic animals, 92 transgenic plants, 101, 102 U.S. pressure on developing countries for IPR, 183-184 U.S. research, 201 venture capital disbursements, 320-321 Borrus, Michael, 358, 373-377, 405 "Brain drain," 71

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Brazilian IPR biotechnology protection, 183-184 copyright for software, 72, 171, 240 demand for, 77-78 exclusions from patent protection, 77-78, 124-125, 171-172 and foreign direct investment, 99 n.9, 114, 116, 117 free riding, 76 internal research in, 73, 136 international cooperation, 86 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 116, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 119, 120 negotiating position in GATT, 354 patent law, 84, 171-172 pharmaceutical protection, 327 plant breeding, 101-103 prevention of technology losses in, 73-74 ranking of, 69, 93, 99 n.9, 123, 136, 140 reforms, 84, 125 n.11, 171-173 research stature and, 83 and sales losses of U.S. industries, 133 sui generis legislation, 314 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 trade secrets protection, 78, 172 Bridges, Bill, 348 Brunelleschi, 46 Building materials industry, sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Bush, Vannevar, 214 Business Software Association of the United States, 236 C Calvin, Melvin, 156 Cameras, miniature color video, 340 Camcorders, 340 Canada, 91 effects of TRIPS on, 177 multinational firms' R&D expenditures in, 137 semiconductor protection, 336 Carnegie Commission, 199 Case law on adaptation of IPR to new technologies, 270-271 Allen and Hanbury's v. Generics UK (U.K.), 159 Allen decision (U.S.), 260 n.9 Allen-Myland, Inc. v. IBM Corp., 269 n.41 Amgen, Inc. v. Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., 258 n.6, 270, 277 n.69 Apple Computer, Inc. v. Franklin Computer Corp., 264 n.25 Atari Games Corp. v. Nintendo of America, Inc., 309 Baker v. Selden, 298, 305 BBC v. Commission of the European Communities, 159-160 Bergy, 257 n.3 on biotechnology protection, 254, 257 n.3, 258 nn.5 & 6, 260, 277 n.69, 320, 323 Broder Software, Inc. v. Unison World, Inc., 264 n.27 Cable/Home Comm. Co. v. Network Prod., Inc., 268 Certain Recombinant Erythropoietin decision, 277 n.69 Computer Associates International, Inc. v. Altai, Inc., 297, 306 n.63, 312 n.75 on computer software protection, 264 nn.25-28, 268-269, 270-271, 292, 296-299, 305-307, 309, 310 on copyright misuses, 276 Dawson Chemical v. Rohm and Haas Co., 276 n.67 Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 9, 254, 257 n.3, 260, 320 Diamond v. Diehr, 265, 292, 295, 309 Digidyne v. Data General, 269 n.41 Durden decison, 323, 324 E.F. Johnson Co. v. Uniden Corp., 292 Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Co., Inc., 269, 305, 307 n.66 on fair use, 291, 305 on free movement of goods and IPR, 159-160, 282 Gottschalk v. Benson, 265, 287 n.10, 288 n.11, 309, 310 Graham v. John Deere Co., 305 Grams decision, 265 n.31 Harper and Row Publishers, Inc. v. Nation Enterprises, 291 n.19 Hibberd decision, 260 n.9 Hubco Data Products Corp. v. Management Assistance Corp., 292

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Iwahashi decision, 265 n.31 Lasercomb America, Inc. v. Reynolds, 276 Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc., 268, 316 n.86 Loctite Corp. v. Ultraseal, Ltd., 276 n.67 Lotus Development Corp. v. Borland Int'l, Inc., 300 Lotus Development Corp. v. Paperback Software Int'l, 264, 297, 300, 315, 331 n.8 Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co. v. Radio Corp., 265 n.33 Moore v. Regents of the University of California, 258 n.5 Parker v. Flook, 265, 309 on pharmaceutical protection, 258 n.6 Plains Cotton Cooperative Assn. v. Goodpasture Computer Service, Inc., 264 n.28, 297 Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation v. Genentech, 258 n.6, 324 on semiconductor protection, 331 n.8 Texas Instruments, Inc., v. United States International Trade Commission, 278 n.73 United States v. Automobile Manufacturers Assn., Inc., 278 n.72 United States v. IBM, 269 n.41 United States v. Manufacturers Aircraft Assn., Inc., 278 n.72 Vault Corp. v. Quaid Software Ltd., 268, 291 n.18 Volvo v. Veng, 159 Warner Brothers v. Christiansen, 159 West Publishing Co. v. Mead Data Central, Inc., 269 Whelan v. Jaslow, 264 n.26, 296-299, 303-304, 314 White-Smith Music Co. v. Apollo, 286 Cathode-ray tubes, 340 Censorship, 52, 53 Cetus, 320, 326 Chakrabarty, Ananda, 320 Charge coupled devices, 340 Chemical industry, 20 attitudes of U.S. firms about foreign direct investment, 112-113, 116, 115, 117, 118, 121, 131, 139 joint ventures by country, 117 licensing of technology in developing countries, 119, 120 sales and R&D expenditures of firms, 115 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132, 133 technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118, 119 Chemicals imitation of, 126 innovation rates, 134 patentability of, 92, 96, 124, 125, 126, 136, 163, 171, 206, 279, 369 Chilean IPR, 84 and economic development, 236 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117, 216 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 119, 120 ranking of, 122, 123 and technology transfer to wholly owned-subsidiaries, 118 Chinese IPR biotechnology protection, 327 computer program protection, 314 ranking of, 93 reforms, 72, 84 Chiron, 320, 326 Clones, 11 Cohen-Boyer patent, 6, 9 Coherent Radiation, 348-349 Colombian IPR, 73 biotechnology protection, 77 copyright protection for software, 72 demand for, 77 Commission of the European Communities, Green Paper on Copyright, 159 Competitive advantage, basis for, 202 Competitive market systems failures, 25-28 resource allocation problems, 24 Competitive strategy of electronics firm, 228-232 IPR and, 189-190, 221-240, 243-245 of pharmaceutical firm, 221-228, 244 of software firm, 232-236 of telecommunications firm, 236-240 Computer industry economic losses due to inadequate IPR protection, 12, 132 importance of IPR to, 192, 194 piracy in, 233

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Computer-produced works, 181 Computer software/programs 1950s and early 1960s, 284-285 1960s (mid) and 1970s, 285-288 1980s, 288-293 adaptation of IPR to, 15, 19, 253-254, 262-266 advanced systems, 335 algorithms and computational procedures, 280, 287, 288, 289, 299, 300, 302-303, 309, 312, 314, 317 applications, 54, 264 artificial intelligence, 15, 181, 263 Berne Convention protocol on, 181 bundling with hardware, 284 case law on, 264 nn.25-28, 268-269, 270-271, 275-276, 291 nn.18 & 19, 292, 296-299, 303, 314 case study on, 284-318 closed systems, 268-269 competitive strategies, 232-236, 239 controversies, 295, 296-299, 301-304 The Coordinator, 234 copying of, 10, 76, 236, 262, 270-271, 295 copyright protection, 7, 8, 54, 72, 125, 166, 171-172, 176, 177, 191, 196, 209, 217, 239, 240, 250, 252, 262-264, 270, 275, 282-283, 285-286, 289, 294, 295, 299-300, 304-309 cross licensing, 280, 292 customized, 196 DAC Easy, 234 data structures for, 303-304 decompilation as infringement, 262, 265, 266, 291-292, 299-300, 310, 312 digital media, 315-316 dimensions of protection, 262 Executive, 234 future challenges in protection of, 314-318 historical overview, 284-293 hypertext navigation systems, 317 interface protection, 266, 269, 280, 289, 295, 296, 299, 300, 312, 352-353 international perspectives on, 15, 92, 251-252, 264, 282-283, 309-314, 317-318 latent semantic indexing algorithms, 317 litigation, 280, 290 logic, 312 networks, 267-269, 280, 316-317, 353 for open systems, 263, 268-269 for parallel processing, 263 patent protection, 6, 7, 8, 50, 147, 196, 240, 243, 250, 265, 280, 282, 286-288, 290, 292, 295, 301-304, 309-310, 317 personal computer and, 288-289 piracy of, 233-234 processing flows, 314 protection of, 294-309 registration of, 235 relational data bases, 54; see also Integrated information networks rental rights, 177 research and development, 293 reverse engineering of, 314 shrink-wrap licensing, 291, 292 solutions to IPR problems, 263-266 source codes, 286, 290, 295 special issues, 262-263 spreadsheets, 54 sui generis protection, 8, 240, 266, 282, 312, 313 trade secret protection, 196, 236, 239, 284-285, 286, 288, 290, 291-292, 295, 300 Translate, 234 translation from one programming language to another, 295 U.S. legal approaches (current) to protection, 294-308 videogame graphics, 295, 313 vulnerability to infringement, 7, 10 X-Windows, 209, 217 Whelan v. Jaslow. 296-299 written in clean rooms, 262, 263 see also Information technologies Confidentiality agreements, 74 Constitution (U.S.), property rights, 22, 304 Copying of products, 7, 10 attitudes on, 236 computer software, 270-271, 290 economics of, 37, 51 effects on innovation, 19 "fair use" doctrine, 30, 291 n.19, 315 and infant industries, 81-82 private, for individual consumption, 11 n.5 public domain, 51 technological advances in, 37, 47, 51, 56, 160 unauthorized, 37

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Copyrights/copyrighting adaptation to new technologies, 23, 250- 251 breadth of protection, 8, 30, 42, 53-54, 161, 264 and censorship, 52, 53 common pool problems, 33-34, 35-36 for compilations of data, 177 for computer software, 8, 54, 72, 125, 166, 171-172, 176, 177, 196, 240, 252, 262-264, 270-271, 275, 282, 285-287, 289, 294, 299-300, 304-309 consent decree, 269 n.41 defined, 30 distinction from patents, 7, 30, 49, 54 economics of, 37, 51 enforcement practices, 91-92 exclusions, 298-299, 304-305 historical background, 51-54 infringement of, 250, 291-292, 296-297, 316-317 international code on, 15 international conventions, 20 and knowledge production, 42 leniency in infringement proceedings, 42 levy on blank recording tapes, 160-161 misuse of, 276 modified approach, 282, 304-309 piracy, 11, 52 priority in awards of, 33 purpose of, 250, 286 reforms, 56, 171 registration process, 285 royalty collection and distribution, 278 term of protection, 30, 49, 53, 91, 264, 285, 313, 332 trade negotiations related to, 176-177 traditionalist compared to protectionist view, 299-300 weak protection of, 124 for works written by others, 51-52 Corning Glass Works, 211, 217-219, 242, 340 Corporations family-owned companies, 211 publicly traded companies, 212 Standard and Poor 500, 211-212 threats to, 378 see also Multinational companies; Small businesses Council of Ten in Venice, 52 Council on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 178 Counterfeiting, 11, 123 Court of Justice of the European Communities, 159 Cross-licensing, 55, 102, 119, 152, 191, 219 benefits of, 228 in computer industry, 369-370 and information exchange, 237 and litigation, 278-280 patent protection and, 369-370 in semiconductor industry, 369-370 and working requirements, 242 Crumpe, Robert, 48 Cunningham, Mark, 212 D Data bases originality source in, 269 n.42 protection of information in, 181, 267-269, 282-283 David, Paul A., 19-61, 147, 151, 155, 156, 184, 186, 189, 376, 371, 405-406 Davis, Randall, 262, 306 Developing countries academic research, 199-200 advantages of stronger IPRs to, 367-368 attitudes about IPR, 110, 153, 170, 200 biotechnology protection in, 95-96 "brain drain" from, 71 exclusion of products and processes from protection, 92 expropriation of intellectual property, 4-5, 10-11, 19-20 government role in research, 199 incentives for IPR in, 215, 363 intellectual property rights in, 73-74, 110, 200, 215 licensing in, 100, 111 natural comparative advantage, 366, 367 optimal levels of IPR protection, 104-105 piracy by, 360 protection strategies of businesses in, 73-74 R&D intensities, 362-365 relevance of India's IPR system for, 165-166 research needs on IPR protection, 135-139 research opportunities in, 82-83, 200-201

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology role of IPRs in, 357, 360-368 technological change in, 135-137 technology as a development driver, 206 technology capacity by type of economy, 361-362, 364-365 technology development in, 72 technology losses to competitors in, 73-74 transitional period for adherence to TRIPS, 178 turnkey technology purchases, 367-368 types of economies, 361-362 use of own IPRs, 366 venture capital availability in, 74 weak IPR systems in, 66, 73-75, 76-78, 116 see also Poor countries; and individual countries Digital audio recording, 7 Digital Equipment Corp., 293 n.24 DNA, 319 Dunkel, Arthur, 80, 176, 336 DuPont, 211 Dynamic random access memory chips, 330, 333 E Economic growth innovation rates and, 135, 193-194 IPR protection and, 5, 12, 66, 67, 87, 152, 172, 189 technological development, 165 Economic policies and issues analysis needs, 253 competing interests, 3-4, 353 expropriation of intellectual property through, 4-5, 19-20 free riding, 76 and innovation, 298 interaction of IPR issues with, 16, 20-24, 73, 184 losses due to inadequate IPR protection, 4-5, 10, 131-133, 138, 140, 233-234 and patent system changes, 109 R&D costs, 6 in technology development, 209-212 U.S. sales and profits, 131-133 Economic theory of regulation, 92 n.5 Edward II, 45 Electron tube repeater technology, 340 Electronics industry, 12, 20 attitudes of U.S. firms about foreign direct investment, 112-113, 115, 117, 118, 121 cross licensing in, 278 importance of IPR to, 192 innovation rates and IPR, 134 joint ventures by country, 117 multinational firm's competitive strategy, 228-232 product and process life cycles in, 214, 373-374 sales and R&D expenditures of firms, 115 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 Elizabeth I, 48 Elzevir family, 52 Enforcement of IPR adapted for new technologies, 249, 275-281 informal approaches, 213, 278-281 judicial, 275-278 levels of, 98 loopholes in TRIPS, 371 mechanisms, 249 mediation, 213 national differences in, 91-92 trade policy and, 178, 360-361 England copyrights, 53 patents, 45, 46, 47-48 Stationers' Company, 53 Statute of Monopolies, 48 Tudor dynasty, 47-48, 53 Entertainment industry, 12, 123 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Environmental Quality Corporation, 217 Estonia, 73 Ethyl, 211 Europe/European Community biotechnology protection, 9, 163, 253, 261-262,270, 271, 282 computer program protection, 240, 268-269, 282, 310, 311-313 congruence of IPR systems, 70, 86, 152 copyright laws, 159, 160, 161 foreign direct investments by, 147, 226-227 IPR approach, 158-162 Maastricht Treaty, 159

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology patent system, 86, 91, 92 n.4, 160, 161, 226, 281 n.77 pharmaceutical patents, 226 plant breeders' rights, 96, 282 policy analysis process, 253 reciprocity provisions, 272 semiconductor protection, 282 sui generis protection, 261-262, 270 trade retaliation measures, 382 trade secrets, 161 trademark laws, 159, 160, 161 European Committee for Interoperable Systems, 312 n.75 Directive on the Protection of Computer Programs, 311, 353 Economic Community Treaty, 159 Patent Convention, 9, 261 Evaluation of IPR protection, 25 age of technology and, 131, 140, 240 accuracy of estimates, 133 comparison of measures for, 119-121 data use for cost-benefit analyses, 147 disaggregated statistical analysis, 128-130 identification of doctrinal issues, 270-273 interindustry variation in foreign direct investment, factors responsible for, 125-126, 369 ITC findings, 122-124 limitations of data, 369-370 measures compared, 112-121 rankings of countries, 69, 93, 99 n.9, 122, 123, 140 statistical analysis based on country data, 127-128 Evenson, Robert E., 136, 357, 360-368, 406-407 Exports losses to infringing products, 12, 132 of technologies by developing countries, 363 F Fair use doctrine, 30, 291 n.19, 315, 316 False advertising, 125 FAX machines, 340 Fiber-optics, 345, 378 Final Soft, 234 Finland, 216 Food industry attitudes of U.S. firms about foreign direct investment, 112-113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 121, 139 joint ventures by country, 117 licensing of technology in developing countries, 119, 120 sales and R&D expenditures of firms, 115 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118, 119 Foodstuffs, patentability of, 92, 124, 125, 126, 153, 163, 165, 185 Foreign direct investment age of technology and, 131, 140 attitudes of U.S. firms on, 114-119, 147 in biotechnology, 101, 226-227 in component-manufacturing facilities, 112-114, 130-131 composition of, 130-131, 140 corporate taxation level and, 127-128 disincentives for, 111-112, 205-206 driving forces in, 370-371 export/import ratio and, 127-128 GDP attributable to wholesale and retail trade, transport, and communication and, 127-128 GDP, per capita, and, 127-128 importance of, 193 industry-specific attitudes, 112-114, 139 joint ventures, 114-116, 140 national executive's frequency of change and, 127-128 non-IPR factors affecting, 127-128, 226, 227 protection of intellectual property rights and, 99 n.9, 100, 110, 111-114, 130- 131, 139-140, 215, 240, 370-372 in R&D facilities, 112-114, 131, 139 in rudimentary production and assembly facilities, 112-114, 130-131 sales and R&D expenditures of firms and, 115, 130-131 in sales and distribution outlets, 112-114, 139 technology transfer via, 111-114 types of, 112-114 unauthorized use of intellectual property and, 131-133 urbanization and, 127-128 in wholly owned subsidiaries, 116, 118- 119, 184

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Forest products industry, sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 France computer program protection, 311 copyrights, 52, 311 FACET program, 216 patent system, 50 Free riding, 72 benefits of, 76, 87, 334 exclusionary rules as, 92 and innovation, 76, 97, 104 research needs on, 75 U.S. trade retaliation for, 183, 184 welfare implications in North-South context, 103-105 Frischtak, Claudio R., 89-106, 407 Furland, Richard, 139 Fusion Systems, 219 G Genentech Inc., 258 n.4, 320 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 162, 175 and developing country use of IPRs, 357, 360 Director General, 176 IPR issues in, 310 pressures on developing countries from, 368 special and differential treatment, 80-81 suitability as forum for uniformity, 185-186 see also Uruguay Round General Electric, 320 Genes, patentability, 253, 258, 281 Genetic engineering patentability of methods, 10 see also Biotechnology Genetic sequences, patentability, 16, 253, 257, 258-259, 327 Genetics Institute, 320 Genetics Systems, 320 Germany computer software protection, 311 copyright law, 351 multinational firms' R&D expenditures in, 137 patents, 86, 158, 351 ranking of IPR system, 69 semiconductor protection, 336 Goldberg, Morton David, 251, 252, 254, 329-338, 407-408 Gordon, Eugene I., 252, 254, 339-350, 408 Gorlin, Jacques, 153, 175-182, 186, 371, 408-409 Gray market goods, 12 Great Britain, see England; United Kingdom Griliches, Zvi, 372 Group of Seven, Economic Summit, 5 Guilds, 52, 53 H Harris, Bryan, 152, 158-162, 184, 409-410 Health policies drug approval delays, 16 interaction of IPR issues with, 16 Hersey, John, 263, 273, 290 Hewlett Packard, 137 n.24 Hills, Carla, 176 Hitachi, 346 Hong Kong IPR and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 ranking of, 123, 140 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 Hughes Aircraft Company, 340, 348 Human Genome Project, 258-259, 261 I IBM Corp., 192, 198, 211, 213, 237, 293 n.24, 312, 341 Imitation, 34 costs of, 82, 134 economic compared to legal, 75 in packaging of products, 125 Immunex, 320 Imports/importation infringing, 12, 132, 323 franchise contracts, 48, 50, 51 of technologies by developing countries, 363 as working a patent, 167, 177 Indian IPR burden of proof, 163 characteristics, 152, 162-164 compulsory licensing, 125, 164, 165

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology exclusions from patentability, 124, 163, 165 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 116, 117, 215, 216 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 119, 120 negotiating position in GATT, 354 patents, 125 pharmaceutical protection, 327 ranking of, 93, 123, 140 rationale, 164-165 reforms, 84 relevance for developing countries, 165-166 rights conferred, 163 technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries in, 116, 118 term of protection, 164 Uruguay Round negotiations, 166 Indonesian IPR and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 119, 120 ranking of, 123 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 Industrial and farm equipment industry, 12, 124 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Industrial Biotechnology Association, 260, 327 Industrial designs, 171, 251, 306, 307, 311 Industrial Property Institute (Mexico), 171 Infant industries, 81-82 Information technologies importance to R&D, 198 protection by U.S., 20 and strengthening of IPR, 184 Infringement of IPR analysis of losses due to, 11-12 antitrust violation for misuse of, 276 n.67 in biotechnology, 259 burden of proof, 163, 167, 171, 179 causes, 10-11 copyright, 250, 291-292, 316-317 decompilation of computer programs as, 250, 262, 265, 266, 291-292 definition of, 11 economic losses due to, 10, 11-12, 131-133 indirect effects of, 12 industries affected, 10, 12 international, 10-12 level of, 10 for network software, 268 ''paper trail" as a defense, 337-338 patent breadth and, 38 penalties for, 171 for pharmaceuticals, 184 rationale for leniency in proceedings, 42 survey time for patents and, 232 trademarks, 125 and U.S. sales and profits, 131-133 U.S. trade retaliation for, 184 Innovation barriers to, 78 dissemination of, 24 and economic growth, 5, 135, 193-194 incentives of IPR laws, 253 incremental, 72, 83, 152, 201, 218, 241, 307, 351 nonpatentable, noncopyrightable, 351 patents and, 114 public subsidy for, 377 Innovation rates adaptation of IPR to new technologies and, 281 in developed countries, 137-139 in developing countries, 363 free riding and, 76 indigenous, in developing countries, 110 IPR protection and, 5, 67, 87, 93, 97, 105, 133-139, 140-141, 189, 194 plant variety protection and, 271 Integrated circuits, 92 Integrated information networks adaptation of IPR to, 268-269 case law on, 271 data base protection, 181 future challenges in protection of, 316-317 special issues, 267-268 Intellectual property, defined, 108, 132 Intellectual property law applicability to new technologies, 19, 43, 50, 70 constitutional protections, 22 economic policy and, 19-21 evolution of, 21-24, 151, 193 historical background, 43-54, 190 "panda's thumb" analogy, 22 reforms, 23

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Intellectual property rights (IPR) and competitive strategy, 243-245 effectiveness of, 241-243 flexibility in, 203-204, 241 forums for reform, 353 globalization of, 204-206 history in the West, 43-54 hybrid approaches, 304-309 ignorance about, 72-74 international importance of issues, 5 justice and equity issues, 20 key issues, 339 misuse doctrines, 281 natural, 50 purpose of, 151, 361 studies of, 71-75 and trade policy, 65 valuation of, 161 Western cultural view of, 354 Intellectual property rights regimes dimensions, 168 n.1 investment and trade effects of changes in, 358, 368-372 see also Copyrights/copyrighting; International IPR regimes; National IPR regimes; Patents/patenting Intermetallic compounds, 124, 125 n.11 International conventions Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 20, 171, 176, 181, 196, 240, 264, 360 Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Micro-organisms for the Purpose of Patent Procedure, 9 n.2 effectiveness in developing countries, 363 extent of protection offered by, 4 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 20, 90 n.2, 170, 196, 230, 360 Patent Cooperation Treaty, 86 Patent Law Harmonization Treaty, 179-180 for protection of new plant varieties, 102 reciprocity provisions, 272 trade secret protection in, 177-178 Trademark Law Harmonization Treaty, 180-181 Universal Copyright Convention, 264 Washington Chip Treaty, 177, 203 n.3, 335, 352, 353 International Intellectual Property Alliance, 169 n.2 International IPR regimes barriers to achieving, 13-14, 15 characteristics, 14 dispute resolution, 359 enforcement mechanism, 366 importance of, 65-66 national interest of U.S. and, 12 and trade, 15-16, 20 International Trade Commission (U.S.), 12 enforcement of border restrictions, 277 country rankings of IPR protection, 122-123 study of economic effects of weak IPR, 131-132, 133, 140 International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, 10 Inventions, 7 biological and medical, 9 "breakthrough," 39, 42 collective process, 55 common pool problem, 33-34 complementary, 55 cost-reducing process, 36 defined, 46, 48 disclosure and dissemination, 108, 109 disincentives for, 13, 38, 67 and economic growth, 363 importation of, 48-49 indicators, 365 monopoly franchises and, 55 natural rights claims to, 20, 26, 50, 57 open economies and, 206-207 and patent protection, 108, 217-218, 220 per inventor, 363 second-generation, 42 simultaneous, 220 Israel, joint ventures, 215 Italy copyrights, 51, 52 patents, 46-47 J James I, 48 Japan biotechnology research, 254, 327 electronic filing of applications, 156-157 expropriation of intellectual property, 5, 219 foreign direct investments by, 147

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology McKinney, George W., III, 190, 217-220, 411-412 McPherson, Isaac, 26 Mechanical technologies, 95 Medina Mora Icaza, Antonio, 190-191, 232-236, 412 Menell, Peter, 297-298 Merck & Co., 324 Merrifield, Bruce, 157, 190, 214-216, 412- 413 Metals industry attitudes of U.S. firms about foreign direct investment, 112-113, 115, 116, 118-121, 126 innovation rates and IPR, 134 joint ventures by country, 117 licensing of technology in developing countries, 119, 120 sales and R&D expenditures of firms, 115 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118, 119 Mexican IPR system, 73 copyright law, 171, 191, 235 enforcement powers, 171 foreign direct investment and, 99 n.9, 114, 117, 136 free riding, 76 Industrial Property Institute, 171 industrial property law, 235-236 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 Law for the Development and Protection of Industrial Property, 170 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 patent law reforms, 72, 84, 170-171 ranking of, 69, 84, 93, 99 n.9, 122, 123 and sales losses of U.S. industries, 133 and software industry, 191, 232-236 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 trade secrets, 171, 236 trademarks and industrial designs, 171 Microorganisms deposit of cultures, 9, 223 patentability, 171, 260 Mitsubishi, 219 Monopoly bilateral contracts with other innovators, 39 deadweight burden of, 34-35, 36 franchise, 40-41, 53, 55 publicly regulated private, 27 temporary, 41 trade, 47 Mossinghoff, Gerald, 157 Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts industries, 12 innovation rates and IPR, 134 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Motorola, 211 Mowery, David C., 358, 368-372, 386, 413-414 Multinational companies alliances with small firms in developing countries, 200-201 competitive strategy, IPR and, 221-240 dominance of markets, 81 electronics firm, 228-232 hostility from developing countries, 119 pharmaceutical firm, 221-228 software firm, 232-236 telecommunications firm, 236-240 N National Agricultural Chemicals Association (U.S.), 133, 140 National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works, 263, 271, 273, 285 n.2, 289, 290, 297-298 National Institutes of Health, 16, 258. 327 National IPR regimes administrative bureaucracy, 85 advantages and disadvantages of, 66-67, 93-97 closed-economy trade-offs, 94 congruent systems, 70, 90, 201, 204, 206; see also Uniform intellectual property system copyright protection, 91-92 cost reduction opportunities, 85 determinants of success, 194 differentiation of, 91-98, 100-101 enforcement levels, 91-92, 98 evaluation of, see Evaluation of IPR protection evolution of, 193 foreign invention protection, 109 global welfare perspective, 103-105 importance of, 99, 193

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology judicial system and, 85 minimum standards for, 90-91 national interests and, 89-91, 146 open-economy considerations, 98-103 patent office, 85 patenting, specifics of, 97-98 pressure from trade and investment partners for, 99, 148, 201 production capabilities and, 95 ranking of, 69-70, 93 reforms in, 72, 170-173 research capabilities and, 95 retaliatory actions for weaknesses in, 170 theory of capture and, 92 trends in evolution of, 170 see also individual countries National Science Foundation, 214 Natural rights of inventors, 20, 26, 50, 57, 151 Nayyar, Deepak, 162-168, 414 NEC, 228-232, 237, 375 Netherlands, copyrights, 52 Newly industrializing countries (NICs), 357 defined, 169 enforcement of IPR, 170 exports of knowledge-intensive products, 169 foreign direct investments by, 147 free riding by, 183 imitation and expropriation of intellectual property, 14 IPR systems status in, 168-174 piracy by, 169 policy questions, 14-15 reforms in IPR, 99, 153, 169, 170-173, 183-184 trade policy, 366 U.S. trade retaliation against, 183-184 use of own IPRs, 366 see also individual countries Nigerian IPR and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 116, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 119, 120 ranking of, 122, 123, 140 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 116, 118 North American Free Trade Agreement, 86, 235, 236, 374 O Office equipment industry, 134 Optical glass, 124 Optical waveguides, patent dispute, 219, 242 Optoelectronics adaptation of IPR to, 254 applications, 339-340, 341, 350 AT&T v. LYTEL, 345-347 components, 341 evolution of, 340 patents, 254, 344-345, 348-349 potential of, 341 principles of, 340-341 proprietary information, 254, 342-344, 345-348, 349 recommendations, 347-348, 349 Spectra Physics v. Coherent Radiation, 348-349 TAT-8 cable, 340, 346 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 100, 111, 362 P Pacific Intellectual Property Association, 157 Paraguay, 86 Patent Law Harmonization Treaty, 179-180 Patents/patenting, 27 adaptation to new technologies, 250-251, 270 advantages and disadvantages, 32, 43, 147, 156 application content and format standards, 179 bilateral monopoly contracts with other innovators, 39 breadth of protection, 4, 91, 161, 163, 180, 265, 287 "breakthrough," 39 claims drafting, 202, 218, 242 common pool problems, 33-34, 35-36 community, 160 competitive bidding scheme for, 39 consent decrees, 243 cost of filing, 218, 344 creation of U.S. system, 48-50 compulsory licensing, 91, 98, 125, 153, 164, 167, 171, 177

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology deadweight burden of monopoly, 34-35, 36 defensive policy, 228, 243, 344 deficiencies in law, 28 defined, 44, 155 design, 29, 46 disclosure provisions, 45, 46, 179 distinction from copyrights, 7, 30, 49, 54 Doctrine of equivalents, 157-158 economic development and, 109 economics of, 275-276 electronic filing of applications, 156-157 English language specifications in, 179, 180 as entrepreneurial assets, 191 for evolutionary minor developments, 219 examination process, 180, 243 exchange of licenses among firms, 55-56 exclusionary rules, 77-78, 91, 124-125, 163, 167, 170-172 experimental use exemption, 261 extension of application period, 219 "first to invent" compared to "first to file," 152, 157, 179, 180, 218, 281 n.77, 281 "first to publish" as a basis for, 218 flooding, 327 of genetic sequences, 16, 327 globalization of, 219, 239 historical background, 43, 44-50 "imitation," 368 import, 47, 48-49 increase in number of, 256 index of conformity to minimum standards, 122 and information infrastructure of the future, 317 infringement of, 11, 38, 163 and innovation, 114, 133-135, 140-141 interindustry differences in effects of, 369 international cooperation on, 15, 20, 260-261; see also International conventions interpretation of claims, 158, 179 invalidation claims, 125 "inventing around," 42, 55 and investment in R&D, 108 laws, 47, 84, 86, 90 n.2 licensing of, 161 litigation, 230-232, 270, 271, 275-276, 344, 348-349 and marketing strategy, 224-227, 236-238 of microorganisms, 171, 260 misuse doctrines, 243-244, 276 model law, 90 n.2 monopolies, 244 as nontariff trade barrier, 155 number of applications, 274 offensive, 344 originality, novelty, and nonobviousness tests, 30, 46, 202, 243, 250, 351 overlap with copyright protection, 250 peripheral, 228, 229 petty, 351 previous publication or disclosure and, 9, 16 priority in awards of, 33 process of obtaining, 344 process versus product, 134, 163, 165, 179, 254 progeny of patented life form included under, 253, 259, 261 prospect theory approach to, 38-39, 55 publication of applications, 179 publication prior to, 281 n.77 races/racing, 33-34, 35, 39, 55 rationale for, 45, 49, 108-109, 164-165, 221-222, 339 on recombinant DNA technique, 6 reforms, 48, 72, 84, 171-173 retroactive "pipeline," 174, 178 revenue generation by, 85 simultaneous invention and, 220 social costs of, 108-109 specifics of, 97-98, 103 suitability for new technologies, 23 and technological advances, 41-42, 55 and technology transfer, 44, 45-47, 48, 49, 55, 226 term of protection, 4, 29, 45, 47, 91, 97, 125, 153, 164, 167, 171, 172, 177, 179, 180, 224, 260 n. 12, 287 trade negotiations related to, 177 and unproductive competition, 38-39 uniformity in, 97-98, 104-105 utility/petty, 85-86, 95 welfare implications in North-South context, 103-105 working requirements, 91, 98, 125, 153, 167, 177, 242-243 see also specific technologies Patronage system, 29, 32-33

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Penrose, Edith, 109 Petri, Franciscus, 46 Petroleum refining industry innovation rates and IPR, 134 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Pharmaceutical industry, 99-100 expenditures on R&D, 325 multinational firm's competitive strategy, 221-228, 244 protection of U.S. innovation, 20 R&D costs, 6, 324, 325 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 see also Chemical industry Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association country rankings for IPR protection, 122 estimates of sales losses due to weak IPR, 133, 140 list of problem countries, 169 n.3 Pharmaceuticals biotechnology-derived, 260, 276, 321, 323 case law on IPR protection, 258 n.6 cephalosporins, 373 compulsory licensing, 125, 177 costs of imitation, 82 country-of-origin property rights, 185 drugs for tropical diseases, 96-97, 138-139 economic losses due to inadequate IPR protection, 12, 82, 138-139 erythropoietin, 258 n.6, 323, 325-326 exclusivity, 260 free riding by developing countries, 76 imitation costs, 134, 222 importance of IPR for, 190 infringement of, 184 innovation rates, 134 introduction of, 225 life cycle, 222, 373 marketing strategy, 224-227 patentability of, 92, 96-97, 124, 125, 126, 153, 163, 172, 190, 206, 209, 223, 279, 369 registration protection, 224 secrecy for production processes, 224-225 term of protection, 260 n.12 tissue plasminogen activase, 258 n.6 trademark protection, 224 transitional period for adherence to TRIPS, 178 Philippines, IPR compulsory licensing, 125 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 patents, 125 ranking of, 122, 123 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 Phillips, 237 Photographic goods industry, 12 Photolithography, 330 Photophone, 340 Piracy, 5, 11, 52 competence and, 363 of computer software. 233 corporate, 233 by developing countries, 360 increases in, 189 industrial, 233 by newly industrializing countries, 169 and research and development, 205 sales losses due to, 233-234 Plant breeders' rights, 10, 84, 96, 103 n.15, 282, 367 Plant-breeding research, 166 Plant varieties certificate of protection, 271 legislation, 260 n.9 patents, 171, 185, 261 Polanyi, Michael, 28 Policy issues, 12 defining, 261 interaction of other policies, 16 trade, 15-16 trade-offs, 13-16 vision of an international regime, 14-15 Poor countries production capabilities and IPR, 93 special and differential treatment, 80-81 Predatory hiring, 74, 78, 136, 343, 345 Preston, John T., 190, 208-213, 217, 414 Price elasticity of demand, and length of patent protection, 36, 97 Primo Braga, Carlos Alberto, 153, 168-174, 183-184, 370, 415-416 Printing trade and technology, 47, 51, 56 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Procurement system, 29, 32, 33-34 Property defined, 31 system, 29; see also Intellectual property system

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Proprietary information, 201 litigation, 342-343 protection for optoelectronics, 254, 342-344, 345-348 publication of research results and, 345-346 purpose of, 339 recommendations, 347-348 required for marketing approval, 178 Protection of intellectual property advantages, 3, 6, 13, 23, 38 with "black boxes," 131 n.19 breadth of, 37-42 criteria for determining adequacy of, 124-125 in developing countries, 135-139 disadvantages, 3, 5, 13, 23, 38 double, 10 economic approaches to, 24-42 economic losses from inadequacies in, 4-5, 10, 11-12 effectiveness of, 4 and foreign direct investment, 111-114, 130-131, 139-140, 215 historical background, 47-48 industrialized versus developing countries, 110 and innovation, 5, 67, 87, 93, 97, 105, 133-139 international, 4 and joint ventures, 114-116, 140 length of, 8, 36-37 and licensing of technology, 55, 119, 120 national, 4, 102; see also National IPR regimes optimal levels from a global welfare perspective, 104-105 policy objectives of, 24-25, 164-165 product life cycles and, 6 production capabilities and, 95 R&D costs and, 6 reasons for inadequacies in some countries, 124-125 reform processes, 282 research capabilities and, 95, 109 research needs on, 135-139 resistance to reforms, 84 segmentation of technology and, 74 and technology transfer, 87, 111-112, 116-119 trade-offs in, 4, 55 see also Copyrights; Intellectual property law; Patents Protectionism, 5 Public good knowledge as, 24 properties of, 27 solutions to problem of, 29 Putnam, Henry Haven, 52 R Radar, 340 Rathmann, George, 244, 254, 319-328, 416 RCA David Sarnoff Labs, 340 Recombinant DNA technique, 6 Regimes, Intellectual property rights regimes; see International IPR regimes Registration protection, 224, 235 Research and development benefits of growth in, 207 capabilities and IPR protection, 93-95, 109 common pool problem, 33-34, 39 cooperative, 189, 197-198, 200-201 defense procurement procedures and, 199 federal government expenditures, 214 foreign direct investment in facilities for, 112-114, 131, 137, 139 funding for, 79-80, 101-102, 194, 199, 377-378 globalization of, 198-199 government role in, 197, 199 intensities in developing countries, 362-365 lack of legal protection and, 73 litigation and, 276 opportunities in developing countries, 82-83 patent protection and investment in, 108, 227, 274 piracy as a barrier to, 205 private sector intensities, 362-363, 365 proliferation and globalization trends, 197-201, 207 public sector intensities, 362, 364, 366-367 resource allocation to, 39 risks, 197 stature of programs as a product of IPR protection, 83

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology and technological knowledge, 26-27 uniform international IPR and, 79, 83 Research needs on IPR, 391-393 adaptation to new technologies, 393 costs and benefits of modifying patent systems, 136-137 cultural traditions and practices, 391 economic effects on developing countries, 392 data deficiencies and developing country conformance to IPRs, 392 effects of stronger protection, 133-139, 392-393 effects of weak protection, 71, 73-75, 393 "first to invent" compared to "first to file," 393 free riding, 75 indigenous technological innovation in developing countries, 392-393 methodological difficulties, 71-73, 75-76 multinational firms' R&D expenditures in developing countries, 137 patent protection and R&D expenditures in developing countries, 135-136 piracy effects, 392 sui generis approaches, 393 trade retaliation effects, 392 uniform compared to differentiated systems, 392 Research parks cooperation among firms in, 136 funding problems in developing countries, 74 Resource allocation in developing countries, 76-77 and enforcement levels, 98 inefficiencies in, 33-34, 39 protection of intellectual property and, 43 to R&D, 39 weak IPR systems and, 77 Reverse engineering, 76 of computer codes, 262, 265, 314 costs of, 334, 337 of high-intensity ultraviolet lamp, 219 and lawsuits, 335 "paper trail," 334, 337-338 royalty rates and, 34 of seed hybrids, 101 n.12 of semiconductor chips, 19, 268, 272, 332, 334, 335, 352 Rubber products industry innovation rates and IPR, 134 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Rules of origin, 371 Russia, 73 S Salinas de Gortari, Carlos, 235 Samuelson, Pamela, 234, 250, 252, 253-254, 284-318, 416 Scientific and technological advances and effectiveness of IPR, 241-243 incremental refinement trends, 201-203 protection of, 6, 9 regional asymmetries in cost of and access to, 358, 373-377 trends in, 189, 190, 195-196, 207, 358-359, 377-380 Scientific goods industry, 12 innovation rates and IPR, 134 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Secrecy, costs of, 35 Semiconductor chips adaptation of IPR to, 15 age of technology, 240 case law, 331 case study, 329-338 compulsory licensing of, 177 and computer software protection, 288-289 copyright protection, 331, 331 defining the technology, 332-333 fabrication process, 330 history of, 329-332 innocent infringer provisions, 177, 336 internationalizing protection, 335-337, 352 layout designs, 177 legislation, 8, 252, 254, 272, 329, 331, 334-336, 352 lump-sum licensing, 237 mask works, 331, 332, 333, 352 patentability of, 6, 8, 84, 124, 177, 279 protection of, 92, 250, 334-337 reverse engineering of, 272, 332, 334, 335, 352 scope and limitations of protection, 177, 334-335 sui generis protection of, 8, 203-204, 252, 254, 272, 282, 309, 332, 333, 335, 352

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology term of protection, 177, 332 trade negotiations related to, 177, 336 Semiconductor laser diodes, 346 Sherwood, Robert, 68-88, 111, 136, 416-417 Siemens, 198, 237 Singapore, IPR copyright law, 171 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 ranking of, 123, 140 and R&D investments in, 137 n.24 reforms, 72, 171 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 116, 118 Skolnikoff, Eugene B., 359, 380-383, 386, 417 Small businesses advantages of stronger IPRs to, 371 biotechnology firms, 275-276, 328 and economic stability in developing countries, 215-216 innovation rates, 280 n.75, 283 litigation threats to, 252, 254, 275-276, 353 patents as assets, 369 protection of, 281 software industry, 234, 302 Small Business Innovation Research program, 218 Smith, Adam, 71 Soft Tec, 234 Software, see Computer programs/software Software Action Group for Europe, 312 n.75 Southeast Asia working requirements for patents, 91 see also individual countries Soviet Union (former), trade secret law, 84 Spain, IPR computer software protection, 235 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 116, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 ranking of, 123, 140 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 116, 118 Spectra Physics, 348-349 Squibb Corporation, 139 Stallman, Richard, 303 Stamm, Otto, 190, 221-228, 243, 417-418 Statutes, see Legislation Subsidies, 27, 29, 32 Sui generis protection, 193 adaptation to new technologies, 251, 255, 272-273, 282 advantages of, 212-213, 251, 283 of biotechnology, 261, 270, 283 of computer software, 8, 240, 308-309, 312, 313 defined, 251 disadvantages of, 195-196, 198, 203-204, 251, 254, 351-352 evaluation of, 272-273, 351-352 international perspectives on, 252, 353 and litigation, 242 of semiconductor chips, 8, 203-204, 252, 254, 272, 282, 309, 332, 333, 335, 352 term of, 8 Sumitomo, 219, 242 Superconductors, patentability, 217 Switzerland, 82, 311 T Taiwanese IPR copyrights, 171 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 patent exclusions, 125 patents, 171 ranking of, 93, 122, 123 and R&D investments in, 137 n.24, 139 reforms, 72, 125, 136, 139, 170, 171 and sales losses of U.S. industries, 133 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 trade secrets, 171 Taxes, 27 Technological development capacity, by type of economy, 361-362, 364-365 in developing countries, 135-137 and economic growth, 165 free riding and, 76 geographic clustering of capabilities and players, 374-376 IPR protection and, 135-137, 147, 165

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology sovereignty and, 359 trends in, 358-359, 377-380 see also Scientific and technological advances Technologies adaptation of, 93 age of, 131, 140, 240 cost and availability issues, 3, 218-219, 358, 373-377 economic incentives for innovation, 12 diffusion of, 40, 75, 78-79, 98, 152, 165 emerging, 7-10, 15 flows, 205 investment scenarios for developing, 209-212 licensing of, 119 product life cycles, 6, 19, 214, 373-374 segmentation of, 74, 78 trends in, 6-7, 135-137 turnkey, 367-368 see also Adaptation of IPR to new technologies; Innovation; Scientific and technological advances Technology transfer, 194 and codified knowledge, 26-27 compulsory licensing and, 153 educational costs in fees for, 229-230 encouragement of, 45-47 via foreign direct investment, 111-114, 131-133, 140 franchises, 47, 50 joint research and, 80 patents and, 44, 45-47, 48, 49, 55, 226, 228 research on, 72-73 royalty arrangements for, 228, 230 to subsidiaries, 116-119 unauthorized use of intellectual property and, 131-133 uniform international IPR regime and, 55, 56, 79, 87, 167-168 Telecommunications, competitive strategy of multinational firm, 236-240 Texas Instruments, 279 Textiles and apparel, 12 importance of patent protection, 369 innovation rates and IPR, 134 sales losses due to weak IPR, 132 Thailand, IPR and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 116, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 119, 120 patent exclusions, 124 ranking of, 122, 123, 140 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 116, 118 U.S. pressures on, 314 Trade border restrictions on infringing products, 277 free trade agreements, 86 IPR as an issue of, 15-16, 20, 65, 310 monopolistic, 47 retaliation pressures, 99, 100, 153, 170, 183 see also Exports; Imports Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) compulsory licensing under, 153, 167 computer program protection, 206 copyright and related rights, 176-177 dispute settlement under, 177, 372 Dunkel draft, 152-153, 185-186, 239- 240, 371 enforcement of IPR, 153, 178, 371 exclusions under, 177, 206 and foreign direct investment, 370 implications for developing countries, 167-168, 170 India's position on, 162, 167-168 investment and trade effects of. 358, 368-372 key issues, 153, 167, 176-178 negotiations related to, 153, 175, 176-178 objectives, 175, 186 patents, 153, 167, 177 and reforms of IPR regimes, 172 semiconductor layout designs, 177, 336 status of, 173-174, 176 suitability as forum for uniformity. 185-186 trade secrets, 177-178 transitional period before required adherence to, 153, 178 Trade Related Investment Measures, 371 Trade secret protection, 27, 96, 166 application to process technology, 203 for computer programs, 196, 236, 239, 284-285, 290, 291-292, 294, 295 cost reduction opportunities, 85 defined, 31

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology in developing countries, 74 employer versus inventor benefits, 32 enforcement of, 92 form and function, 30 as intellectual property, 30-31 law, 9, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33, 36, 84, 171 mechanism of, 202-203 misappropriation, 11, 291-292 offshore ventures and, 239 reforms, 84, 171, 172 and resource allocation inefficiencies, 33 role of, 36 technology-information agreements, 238 trade negotiations related to, 177, 236 uniform international IPR regime and, 56 Trademarks, 15, 20 breadth of protection, 161, 305 competitive strategy, 238, 239 pan-European system, 160 for pharmaceuticals, 224 reforms in developing countries, 125, 171 weak protection in developing countries, 124 Transgenic animals and plants, 92, 101, 102, 177, 259 Transistors, 237, 333 Transoceanic underwater communicationcable, 340 Transportation equipment industries attitudes of U.S. firms about foreign direct investment, 112-113, 115, 117, 118, 121, 126, 139 joint ventures by country, 117 sales and R&D expenditures of firms, 115 technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118, 119 Tudor, Mary, 53 U Uenohara, Michiyuki, 190, 228-232, 243, 418 Ultraviolet lamps, high-intensity, 219 Unauthorized use of intellectual property see also Copying; Free riding Uniform intellectual property system ''adequate and effective protection" standard, 186 barriers to achieving, 20, 54-57, 66, 89-90, 147-148, 151, 166, 251 benefits for nations and global economy, 66, 68, 71-80, 87, 147, 160, 192-193, 206 characteristics, 68-71 computer network for linking patent offices, 86 constitution-like framework for, 186 demand for, 76-78 determinants of success, 152 diffusion of benefits, 78-79 disadvantages of, 80-83, 87, 166 and dominance of markets, 81-82 economic issues, 66, 82-83 ethical trade-offs, 81 examination of applications by transnational offices, 86 findings from interviews, 73-75 free-riding, 75-76 incentives for, 104-105 installation of, 85-87 and international competitiveness, 83 in open economies, 100-101 pressure for, 66, 153 research on, 71-75 research stature and, 83 size of country and, 104 special and differential treatment for poor countries, 80-81 trade-offs between technological progress and technology diffusion, 55 training of administrative staff, 86 and transfer of technology, 55, 56 trends toward, 84-85 TRIPS as a forum for, 185-186 U.S. interests in, 376 Union for the Protection of New Varieties, 261, 282 United Kingdom biotechnology protection, 258 multinational firms' R&D expenditures in, 137 semiconductor protection, 336 United States Articles of Confederation, 49 biotechnology research in, 201, 254 conflicts with developing countries, 317-318 defense procurement procedures, 199 effects of stronger IPR on, 372 federal government views on IPR, 190, 214-216

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology Food and Drug Administration, 260, 325 foreign direct investment attitudes of businesses, 112-114 grace period for research publication, 9 n.3 industrial design protection, 306, 307 industry views on IPR, 217-220 interindustry variation in effects of IPR, 369 levy on blank recording tapes, 160-161 mechanisms of technology development in, 375 national interests, 12, 21 opposition to Washington Chip Treaty, 203 n.3 pharmaceutical patents, 226 plant breeders' rights, 96, 271 policy analysis process, 253 post-war technology policy, 372 ranking of IPR system, 69 retaliatory actions for weak IPRs, 170, 172, 183, 186, 371, 372 semiconductor protection, 250-251, 252, 306 software protection approaches in, 250-252, 294-308 Special 301 provisions, 175 state differences in protection of trade secrets, 70 sui generis protection, 203-204, 271, 308 trade law reforms, 199 trade relations, 87 see also U.S. entries UNIX, 240 Uruguay, 82, 86 Uruguay Round barriers to agreement on IPRs, 251-252, 357, 360 concerns about, 162 importance of, 239 India's IPR regime and, 162, 166-168 IPR discussions, 5, 15-16, 66, 80, 86-87, 99, 148, 153 semiconductor chip protection, 352 see also Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights U.S. Chamber of Commerce Intellectual Property Task Force, 122 U.S. Copyright Office "rule of doubt," 285-286 source code deposit requirements, 286, 290 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 4, 249 Commissioner of Patents, 157 complaints about, 302 efficiency of, 281, 328, 349 examination standard, 349 number of applications processed, 274 policy analysis process, 253 training of administrative staff, 86 U.S. patent system advantages of, 201 biotechnology patents, 77-78, 226, 253, 257, 259-260, 276-277, 327-328, 367 burden of proof on infringement, 163 changes in, 23, 156 compulsory licensing, 163 computer program patents, 7, 8, 201, 234, 243, 252, 286-288, 292, 301-302, 308-309 creation of, 48-50 delay in issuance of patents, 254, 258, 274-275, 324 effect of Patent Law Harmonization Treaty on, 179-180 effect of TRIPS on, 177 exclusionary rules, 91, 163 "first to invent" standard, 152, 157 origin of, 184-185 term of protection, 327 U.S. Trade Representative, 176 Utility models, 251, 366 V Vagelos, P. Roy, 324-325 Venezuelan IPR, 73, 85 and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117 and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120 patent exclusions, 126 ranking of, 122, 123 and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118 Venter, Craig, 258 Venture capital, availability in developing countries, 74 Videotapes, copying, 10, 160-161 Virginia Company, 48 von Speyer, Johann, 46-47, 51

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Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology W Washington, George, 49, 50 Western Electric Company of Illinois, 228 Westwood, Albert R.C., 401-402 Whelan Associates, 296 World Bank, 71, 72, 85, 216 World Intellectual Property Organization, 66, 162, 167, 175 Berne Convention protocol, 181 biotechnology study, 260-261, 270 Committee of Experts, 180-181, 260 n.14, 273 discussions, 153, 179-182 dispute settlement between states, 181-182 functions of, 15, 16 model patent law, 90 n.2 objectives, 175 Patent Law Harmonization Treaty, 179-180 reform processes, 282 review of patent differences, 91 n.3 study group on harmonization, 157-158 Trademark Law Harmonization Treaty, 180-181 training of administrative staff, 86 Washington Chip Treaty, 203 n.3, 335-336