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Argentinian IPR, 73

agricultural research, 78

demand for, 78

international cooperation, 86

and joint ventures with U.S. firms, 114, 117

and licensing of technology by U.S. firms, 120

patent law, 84, 126

pharmaceutical protection, 327

plant breeders' rights, 96

ranking of, 69, 122, 123

and sales losses of U.S. industries, 133

and technology transfer to wholly owned subsidiaries, 118

Armstrong, James E., III, 152, 155-158, 184, 186, 402-403

Armstrong, John A., 190, 192-207, 212, 213, 217, 241, 371, 373, 403-404

Artificial intelligence, 15, 181, 263

Associacion Nacional de la Industria de Programas para Computadoras, 233, 234, 235

AT&T, 191, 213, 232, 236-240, 243, 340, 341, 345-347, 377-378

Audiotapes, copying, 10, 160-161

Australia, 91

Author's rights law, 235

B

Bangladesh, 361

Barbaro, Daniele, 51

Barton, John, 251, 253, 256-283, 353, 404

Belarus, 73

Bell, Alexander Graham, 340

Bell Laboratories, 237, 340, 346, 348, 358, 377

Bement, Arden L., Jr., 388-390, 404-405

Biochips, 15, 204

Biotechnology

adaptation of IPR to, 15, 19, 257-262, 266

agricultural, 259, 279 n.74

bacterium that produces ethanol from sugar, 77-78

border restrictions, 277

breadth of protection, 276-277

capital raised through public offerings, 322

case law, 254, 257 n.3, 258 nn.5 & 6, 260, 270, 271, 320, 323, 324

case study, 319-328

cloning of proteins, 257-258

commercialization role of IPRs, 254, 319-321, 325

defined, 257

delayed ripening of fruits, flowers, and vegetables, 102 n.13

delays in patents, 324

deposit of cultures, 9

in developing countries, 77-78, 95-96, 101-103

effects of protection, 103

exclusion under TRIPS, 177

experimental use exemption, 261

foreign investments in, 101

history of, 319-323

human, 259

international policy issues, 166, 258, 260-262, 270, 276-277, 323-324, 326-327

licensing of products, 102

litigation, 279

market value of stocks, 320, 322

oil-digesting organism, 320

patents, 6, 9, 92, 96, 102, 147, 163, 171, 194-195, 244, 254, 270, 271, 274-275, 278, 279, 281, 319-320, 323, 351

pharmaceuticals, 260, 275, 321, 324-325, 327

piracy of, 77

plant breeders' rights, 10, 95-96

policy analysis needs, 259

process claims, 323

recombinant DNA technique, 6

relevant forms of intellectual property, 9

role of small firms in, 252, 326, 328

sales, 321

scope of claims, 324

solutions to IPR issues, 259-262

special issues, 257-259

sui generis protection, 261, 270, 283

trade barriers, 282

trade secrets protection, 194-195

transgenic animals, 92

transgenic plants, 101, 102

U.S. pressure on developing countries for IPR, 183-184

U.S. research, 201

venture capital disbursements, 320-321

Borrus, Michael, 358, 373-377, 405

"Brain drain," 71



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