TABLE 3-3 Examples of Chemical Allergens and Indoor Sources

Agent

Source

Reference

Antibiotics

Hospitals, pharmaceutical facilities

Davies et al., 1974, 1983

Other drugs: piperazine, alpha-methyldopa, cimetidine, endofluorane anesthetic

Hospitals, pharmaceutical facilities

Butcher et al., 1989

Metal salts: nickel, platinum, chromates

Platinum processing and nickel or chromium plating plants

Block and Chan-Yeung, 1982; Cromwell et al., 1979; Dolovich et al., 1984; Malo et al., 1982; McConnell et al., 1973; Novey et al., 1983; Pepys et al., 1972, 1979; Pickering, 1972

Anhydrides

Facilities that manufacture curing agents, plasticizers, or anticorrosive coatings

D. I. Bernstein et al., 1982, 1984; Grammer et al., 1987; Topping et al., 1986; Zeiss et al., 1977

Isocyanates

Facilities that produce or apply paints, surface coatings, or polyurethane foam

Baur and Fruhmann, 1981; Butcher et al., 1977, 1979, 1980

Ethylenediamine

Buildings in which shellac or lacquer are used

Gelfand, 1983; Lam and Chan-Yeung, 1980

Azo-dyes

Facilities that manufacture or use dyes

Park et al., 1991; Slovak, 1981

reactions to a given chemical among workers. In other instances, estimates have been developed for the number of workers exposed to chemicals such as TMA (20,000 workers) and TDI (50,000-100,000 workers). However, for many chemicals and many industries the number of exposed workers and the prevalence of allergic disease are not known and have not been studied. In many cases, there have been high employee turnover rates in jobs in which workers may develop allergic reactions to chemicals. For example, high turnover rates have been found among platinum workers as a result of respiratory sensitization (Roberts, 1951). In another study of the electronics industry, many of the workers who left their jobs cited respiratory



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