tions determined by medical underwriters (and underwriting manuals) to reduce life expectancy below actuarial norms. Standards for medical underwriting vary substantially by insurance company, and underwriting decisions are considered crucial business decisions by insurers and are thus considered "trade secrets."


Paul Billings, "Testimony Before Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations," U.S. House of Representatives, 102nd Congress, July 23, 1992.


Canadian Privacy Commission, Genetic Testing and Privacy (Ottawa, 1992).


Neil A. Holtzman and Mark A. Rothstein, "Invited Editorial: Eugenics and Genetic Discrimination," 50 Am. J. Hum. Genet. 457-459 (1992).

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