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FIGURE 7-1 Structure of the respiratory tract. SOURCE: National Research Council, 1979.

attempt to understand the relationship between the acute and chronic responses to these agents, other respiratory hazards known to cause both acute and chronic effects are also reviewed.


The basic anatomy of the respiratory tract is illustrated in Figure 7-1. The respiratory tract is lined with epithelial cells of different types, depending on their location and functions. A  stratified squamous epithelium lines the nasal vestibule, followed by pseudostratified ciliated and ciliated columnar to cuboidal epithelium that lines the remainder of the nose, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles (Figure 7-2). These cells are interspersed with nonciliated goblet and Clara cells. The cells are coated with a thin layer of mucus secreted by the goblet cells and

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