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TABLE 8-1 Effects of Acute Sulfur Mustard Exposure on the Human Eye at (16°C-27°C unless otherwise noted)

Estimated Exposure

Effects

Latency

Reference

Vapor (Ct of mg·min/m3) 2 (=32ºC)

Threshold for conjunctivitis and reddening; nondisabling; Not available maximum safe Ct for eyes

Not available

McNamara et al., 1975; U.S. Army CRDEC, 1990

=12

Threshold for conjunctivitis and reddening; nondisabling

Several hours to several days

McNamara et al., 1975; Project Coordination Staff, 1946

12

Marginal effects

Not available

U.S. Army, 1974

30 (60 min)

Conjunctivitis

Not available

Reed, 1920

50-100

Conjunctivitis, sensation of grittiness under eyelids, tearing, light sensitivity; nondisabling; healing of injury 2-7 days (14 days if severe)

4-12 hours

Gates and Moore, 1946; McNamara et al., 1975; Project Coordination Staff, 1946

70

Reddening, no incapacitation

Not available

U.S. Army, 1974

90

Reddening, mild incapacitation

Not available

U.S. Army, 1974

200

Median incapacitating Ct (ICt50); corneal edema and clouding; eyelid edema, photophobia, severe blepharospasm (temporary blindness); healing of injury over several weeks; some hypersensitivity for months

3-12 hours

Project Coordination Staff, 1946; Urbanetti, 1988; U.S. Army, 1974; U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, 1975

400-800

Corneal damage with possible ulceration and secondary infection; incapacitating; eye damage may be permanent; possible prolonged hospitalization (several months)

1-4 hours

Karnofsky and Nolen, 1944

>800

Severe corneal damage with possible permanent loss of vision; possible systemic effects; incapacitating; possible prolonged hospitalization

1-3 hours

Papirmeister et al., 1991; Stepanov and Popov, 1962

Liquid      

Unknown (droplets or liquid splash)

Severe pain; edema; corneal damage; possible corneal perforation; incapacitating, possible permanent eye damage or loss (rare); hospitalization required

<1 hour

Maumenee and Scholz, 1948; Papirmeister et al., 1991

 

SOURCE: Adapted from Papirmeister et al., 1991; Watson and Griffin, 1992.



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